Vineyard management Flashcards Preview

WSET L3 GJR 2018 > Vineyard management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vineyard management Deck (115):
1

Which one of these is not a reason for selecting a grape variety to grow

- Budding times
- Rippening times
- Leaf colour
- Resistance to certain diseases

- Leaf colour

2

Which vineyard has the aspect to give it the highest amount of sun.

 North facing slope in the northern hemisphere
 South facing slope in the southern hemisphere
 North facing slope in the Southern hemisphere
 A flat vineyard at 50° Latitude.

North facing slope in the Southern hemisphere

3

An aspiring wine maker in Bordeaux decides to create his own version of Cabernet Sauvignon. He polinates a Cabernet Franc with Sauvignon Blanc. The resulting grape is what?

Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet Franc

Sauvignon Blanc

A new grape variety

Cabernet Sauvignon

4

What factors can affect sunlight?

Latitude - Day length greater further from Equator

Seas, Lakes and Rivers - Near large bodies of water more cloud cover, Centre of landmasses tend to be sunnier

Aspect - A slopes aspect affect the amount of sunlight, steeper slopes = more benefit

5

What are the 4 Climate (temp) classifications?

Cool - Av growing season 16.5c or below

Moderate - Av 16.5~18.5c

Warm - Av 18.5~21c

Hot - Av above 21c

6

How does Phylloxera kill vulnerable vines?

It feeds on the roots of the vine allowing infections to set in meaning, over the course of a few years, the vine dies

7

The Picture Below is an example of what type of training?

Q image thumb

Head Training

8

At what age are most vines replacedWhat are the pros / cons of 'old vines'

Most replaced between 30~50 Years

Old vines produce higher quality fruit (more concentrated flavour) partly due to lower yield per vine.

Lower yield might not be cost efficient andolder vines more susceptible to disease

9

What climate type is this?

High Continentality, low rainfall and a very sunny growing season

Continental

10

Name 3 diseases that threaten vines and how they are controlled

Powdery and Downy mildew - Likes warm, humid. If affected grapes lose fruity flavour.

Powdery treated with sulfur based spray. Downy treated with Bordeaux mixture copper based spray. Can also be managed by canopy management to max air flow * More spraying in Maritime climates where there is more rainfall.

Grey rot (Botrytis cinerea) - Likes damp. Taints flavours and colour loss in red grapes. Best managed by canopy management and not picking too late.

11

New grape varieties can be created through cross pollination. What is 'cross pollination'?

The pollen from the male part of the flower of one vine is transferred to the female part of the flower on another vine and fertilisation occurs.

12

Name the 2 most common training techniques for vines

Head training - Little permanent wood (some only trunk), then shoots are trained

Cordon training - Trunk plus one or more permanent horizontal arms (cordons). Takes longer to establish but makes mechanisation easier

13

What climate type is this?

Low to medium Contintality, low to medium rainfall mainly in Winter and a sunny growing season

Mediterranean

14

The following are all examples of what type of climate? 
Mod -> Chianti, Carneros 
Warm ->Chateauneuf, Napa Valley
Hot -> Murray-Darling

Mediterranean Climate

15

Which soil type has the largest warming effect?

Gravel

16

Which of the following inputs to a vine will vary least from season to season?

CO2

Heat

Sunlight

Nutrients

CO2

17

Which is not a method of controlling yield in a typical season?

 Green harvest
 Winter pruning
 Irrigation
 Mechanical Harvesting

 Mechanical Harvesting

18

In which regions has Phylloxera not reached?

Chile, some parts of Argentina and South Australia. It hasn't reached due to strict quarantine procedures and inhospitable climate

19

Why is vine bud management important?

The vine stores Carbohydrates over Winter. If too few buds each will have access to too much energy and will grow too vigorously.

If too many buds, each will not have access to enough energy and the vine will struggle to ripen its crop load.

20

What are the 3 ways to grow grapes to reduce intense chemical usage?

Sustainable agriculture - Chemicals permitted but minimised by growers understanding life cycles of pests and introducing predators of the pests. Monitor weather to prevent pest or disease before it occurs.

Organic agriculture - Small doses of traditional treatments permitted only.

Biodynamic agriculture - Organic practices + philosophy and cosmology. Cycles of planets, moon and stars plus homeopathic treatments.

21

Put the growth cycle in order

Veraison, Budburst, Flowering, Fruit set, Ripening

Budburst, Flowering, Fruit set, Veraison, Ripening

Budburst, Flowering, Veraison, Fruit set, Ripening

Budburst, Veraison, Flowering, Fruit set, Ripening

Budburst, Flowering, Fruit set, Veraison, Ripening

22

How can VSP (Vertical Shoot Positioning) be used in hot, sunny climates and why would a grower choose to use this system?

The method is adapted so the tops of the shoots are not tied but allowed to flop over creating some shade in the canopy to protect fruit. A grower would choose this system to enable mechanical harvesting.

23

Frost flows in a similar way to

 Ice
 Water
 Steam

Water

24

Describe the annual cycle of vine

Spring

Late Spring / Early Summer

As Summer progresses

Late Summer / Early Autumn

Later in Autumn

Spring - Budburst, new shoots begin to grow

Late Spring - The vine flowers and small grapes form

Summer - Grapes grow but still hard in texture, high acid/low sugar

Late Summer/Early Autumn - Grapes ripen, sugar rises, acidity drops and flavours develop. Marked by grape colour change; véraison

Later in Autumn - Grapes harvested

25

What is the difference between Climate and Weather?

Climate - Annual weather pattern over several years

Weather - Variation in a specific year

26

In hills and mountains, as the altitude increases what happens to temperature?

It decreases

27

What are the vineyards 4 natural resources?

Temperature, Sunlight, Water, Soil nutrients

28

Pinot Noir, as a grape variety, is known to randomly change. For example, in the past it has suddenly produced a grey version and was renamed Pinot Gris, a white grape version has appeared and is called Pinot Blanc. All 3 grapes are related to each other and can be considered what?

Mutations

29

What is a Cordon?

The arms of a vine made up of 2+ year old wood. Restricted by pruning

30

What are the 4 main techniques to manage a vine?

Training, pruning, trellising and planting density

31

What are day / night temperature changes known as?

Diurnal

32

 What grape results from a polination of Cabernet Sauvignon & Sauvignon Blanc?

Cabernet Franc

33

What 3 things should a grower consider when selecting a site for a new vineyard?

Environmental - Temp, rainfall, sunlight, soil fertility and drainage.Factors effect grape selection, planting density and trellising etc.

Business - Proximity to power and water, avail of labour, accessibility for machinery and cost of land.

Grape variety - Must suit climate and meet demand. In EU might be legal restrictions on types used.

34

What are the 3 main techniques for irrigation?

Drip - Computer controlled dripper for each vine - Expensive

Sprinklers - Also used for frost protection. Waste water and can create damp conditions promoting disease - Cheaper than Drip

Flood Irrigation - Cheapest where water is freely available. Only used on flat or gently sloping vineyards

35

Briefly explain the effect of

Latitude, Altitude, Ocean Currents Fog, Soil and Aspect on vine development and  grape growing

Latitude -Usually between 30~50 degrees N and S of the Equator

Altitude - As altitude increases temp drops allowing growth closer to Equator

Ocean Currents - Deliver localised warming/cooling in certain regions

Fog - Can cool an otherwise unsuitable growing area e.g. California, Casablanca Valley, Chile

Soil - Dark soils radiate more heat than lighter. High water retaining soils take longer to warm up

Aspect - Direction slope faces, facing Equator get most heat. Steeper slopes accentuate effect.

36

What 5 things does a vine need to survive

Heat, Sunlight, Water, Nutrients, Carbon Dioxide

37

Name 4 vineyards pests and how to control them

Phylloxera- Use resistant rootstock

Nematodes (worms) - Use resistant rootstock and sanitise soil before re-planting.

Birds and mammals - Birds - Netting / Mammals - Fencing

Insects - Insecticides or Integrated pest management

38

What is Inflorescence?

The complete flower head of a plant including stems, stalks, bracts, and flowers

39

Planting seeds doesn't work in viticulture, what are the two ways to grow more vines?

a. A cutting (a section of vine shoot is planted and grows)

b. Layering (a section of vine is buried and, in time, takes root)

40

Which statement about soils is FALSE

- Light coloured soils reflect the suns energy and don't radiate heat into the vineyard.
- Wet soils take longer to warm up and tend to cool the vine
- Rocky soils tend to absorb and radiate heat warming the vineyard.
- Rocky soils on slops near rivers tend to pull the water up a hill making vineyards wet and susceptible to frost

Rocky soils on slops near rivers tend to pull the water up a hill making vineyards wet and susceptible to frost

41

A Spur is what?

1 year old wood pruned often with 2~3 buds and is quite short.

42

How is American rootstock resistant to Phylloxera?

They clog the insects mouth with sticky sap and form a protective layer behind the feeding wound to prevent secondary infections

43

What 3 main reasons can influence planting density?

-Limited water - Low density allows vines to take limited water without competing against the roots of neighbouring vines.

-Low levels of nutrients and sufficient rainfall - Risk is vigorous vegetative growth rather than fruit. High density planting provides competition for resources to limit vegetative growth. Bud management is also important. High density and strict bud control common in Europe.

-High nutrients and sufficient rainfall - High density planting not enough so, instead, low density with vines with multiple cordons or canes.

44

What is 'Coulure'?

When more flowers than normal fail to fertilise

45

When plants are photosynthesising which of the following equations is correct?

02 + Sunlight + Chlorophyll => Sugars + CO2

C02 + Sunlight + Chlorophyll => Sugars + O2

02 + Heat + Chlorophyll => Sugars + O2

C02 + Sunlight + Veraison => Sugars + O2

C02 + Sunlight + Chlorophyll => Sugars + O2

46

Which part of the grapes does not contain tannins

 Stems
 Bloom
 Seeds
 Skin

Bloom

47

Name and briefly explain the two common methods of grafting

Bench Grafting - Automated process, both parts joined by machine and stored in warm environment to encourage both parts to fuse together

Head Grafting - Vine is cut back to its trunk and a bud or cutting of the new variety is grafted on to the trunk

48

What are the four parts of a vine?

Green parts of the vine

One year wood

Permanent wood

The roots

49

What are the four main forms of frost protection?

Heaters

Wind Machines

Sprinklers

Vineyard design - slopes are less at risk

50

Describe Continental climate

High Continentality, low rainfall and a very sunny growing season

51

American vines are rarely used to make wines, what is their main use?

Providing Phylloxera resistant rootstock for Eurasian species to be grafted onto.

52

What are Tendrils?

The structure the vine uses to support itself by winding themselves tightly around trellis wires to keep the shoot upright

53

Which statement is NOT true about Permanent Wood?

It is at least 2 years old

It has bark

Cordon is an example of permanent wood

Buds typically burst from permanent wood

Buds typically burst from permanent wood

54

The following are all examples of what type of climate? 
Cool -> Champagne, Mosel
Mod -> Burgundy, Central Otago, Barolo
Warm -> Ribera Del Duero, Mendoza
Hot -> La Mancha, Port

Continental Climate

55

Which of these statements about Inflorescence is false?

 Inflorescence include flowers bunched together before fertilisation. 
 Flowers created the year before. 
 Inflorescence are the complete flower head of a plant including stems, stalks, bracts, and flowers.
 The number of flowers is proportional to the age of the vine.

The number of flowers is proportional to the age of the vine.

56

How long after new planting is first yield?

Third year after planting

57

The following are all examples of what type of climate? 
Cool -> Muscadet 
 Mod -> Bordeaux, Rias Baixas 
Warm -> Auckland

Maritime Climate

58

Which statement about Root stock is false?

- Root stocks are used because they are disease resistant

- Root stocks allow the grower to match different Root stocks to different soils

- Changing Root stocks while the plant is growing is called 'head grafting'

- Root stocks can be used to manage yield

Changing Root stocks while the plant is growing is called 'head grafting'

59

What is an untrellised vineyard?

What are the advantages and disadvantages?

Vines not trellised, shoots hang down as far as ground.

Bush vines typically head trained and spur pruned. Best suited to warm/hot, dry, sunny regions (S. Rhone, Barossa Valley), extra shade helps protect grapes. Not suited to cool climates as shade can impede grape ripening and airflow (disease). Not suitable for mechanical harvesting.

60

Which one of these is the odd one out?

- Grey Rot
- Nematodes
- Powdery Mildew
- Downy Mildew

Nematodes

61

What are the objectives of Summer pruning?

Trimming the canopy to restrict vegetative growth and direct sugar production to the grape rather than shoots and leaves. Can also involve leaf stripping for max exposure of bunches to sun

62

Describe a Maritime climate

Low to Medium Continentality, medium to high rainfall all year long & often a cloudy growing season

63

What is 'Millerandage'?

When grapes form without seeds and remain small

64

A Cane is what?

1 year old wood pruned leaving with 8~20 buds and is quite long.

65

Describe the 3 main climate types

Continental - Greatest diff between hottest and coldest months, usually short dry Summers with rapid temp drop in Autumn.e.g. Chablis and Champagne

Maritime - Cool to moderate low annual difference between hottest and coldest months. e.g. Bordeaux

Mediterranean - Low temp diff hottest and coldest months but Summers usually warm and dry e.g. Mediterranean, Coastal Calif, Chile, SA and SE Australia

66

If you gave a vine cutting to someone and a vine grew. It is a what?

Crossing

Clone

Hybrid

Mutation

Clone

67

What is this picture is an example of?

 

Q image thumb

Cordon & Spur

68

What is Phylloxera?

An insect native to North America

69

This picture is an example of what?

Q image thumb

Replacement Cane with VSP

70

Other than red or white or established varieties what other considerations are there for a grape grower when considering grape variety?

e.g. Budding and ripening times, resistance to pests and diseases

71

If temperature is too low or too hot the vine stops photosynthesis, what is the correct range?

>10c <35c

72

Which of these statements about too much rain near harvest is false?

The Grapes become bigger

Flavours and sugars will be diluted

The size of the crop increases

Increases the colour in red wines

Increases the colour in red wines

73

VSP (Vertical shoot positioning) is a trellising system often used when growing e.g. Chardonnay in a cool climate. Why would a grower use this system?

In cool climates grapes can struggle to ripen fully. A grower can help the grapes to ripen by increasing exposure to sunlight and heat. In VSP, the shoots are trained up the wires, meaning the grapes are not shaded by any shoots that might otherwise hang down. Their exposure to sunlight and heat is therefore maximised.

74

When does vine pruning take place?

 

Every Winter and Summer

 

75

What are the pros and cons of Machine and Hand harvesting?

Machine (shakes the trunk)
- Not selective, often collecting unhealthy, unripe and damaged grapes. Can only be used on flat or slight incline vineyards

+ Speed, can work through the (cool) night meaning no need to cool grapes before fermentation.

Hand
- Slower and more Labour Intensive = more expensive

+ Can be used on steep vineyards e.g. Douro, Mosel, N. Rhone. Allows grape selection 'on the go', less damage to grapes, stems retained = clean, fresh juice for white and essential for red 'whole bunch' winemaking.

76

Which of these about vineyards near oceans is NOT true?

Vineyards often experience wetter conditions

Diurnal temperature range tends to be lower

Vineyards beside oceans are cooled by ocean currents

There is often a lower risk of frost

Vineyards beside oceans are cooled by ocean currents

77

What is the objective of Winter pruning?

The main objective is to determine the number and location of buds that will form the shoots in the coming growing season by cutting away unwanted leaves, canes and permanent wood.

78

What is another name for Botrytis?

Grey Rot

79

Which one of these is associated with manual harvest?

- Can be done at night when temperatures are lower, slowing down oxidation.
- The grapes are shaken violently off the plant
- Low capital costs but higher ongoing costs
- Suitable for all trellising systems

Suitable for all trellising systems

80

Which statement about buds is false?

They form the year before

They contain immature Inflorescence

They generally only form on shoots at the end of the growing season

The number of bunches each bud produces is dependent upon the amount of sun the bud receives when it is a cane

The number of bunches each bud produces is dependent upon the amount of sun the bud receives when it is a cane

81

Which of these techniques in NOT used in canopy management

VSP
Trellising
Inter row spacing
Passerillage

Passerillage

82

What 2 reasons why netting is needed in a vineyard?

To protect the Vine from birds and / or hail

83

What the Latin name for the most commonly grown vine species?

Vitis Vinifera

84

Explain 'Diurnal Range'

The diff between daytime and night time temps.Cool nights slow loss of aroma and acidity, warm nights accelerate ripening.

85

What are the 3 main reasons for trellising a vineyard?

i. Arrangement of young shoots controls (maximise/limit) amount of sunlight getting into canopy.

ii. An open canopy can improve air circulation (esp. beneficial in wet climates).

iii. Aids mechanical harvesting and makes spraying insecticides &amp; fungicides more effective.

86

How can you protect from Hail?

Netting but costly.

Own several vineyards in different locations to mitigate risk

87

What are the 2 types of Winter pruning?

Briefly summarise each type

Spur and Replacement cane.

Spur - Short sections of 1yr wood, cut down to 2~3 buds.

Replacement cane - Longer sections of 1yr wood with 8~20 buds on, typically 1 or 2 canes

88

When is it best to do a green harvest?

Shortly after Veraison

89

In relation to vines, Hybrids are?

Sexual reproduction, with parents being from different vine species

Sexual reproduction, with parents being from the same vine species

The process of joining rootstock to another vine

An error in copying process of a new bud

Sexual reproduction, with parents being from different vine species

90

Which soil type has the poorest drainage?

Clay

91

What can a grower do if yields are potentially going to be too high?

Reduce by removing immature grapes after Véraison. This practice is known as 'green harvesting'. If done too early vine can compensate by increasing size of retained grapes potentially diluting flavour.

92

What are Shoots?

This year vine growth

93

Which statement about Vitis Vinifera is true

- The main Eurasian species for grape production
- It is the preferred species for root stock
- Provides excellent disease resistance
- When harvested green grapes turn blue.

The main Eurasian species for grape production

94

Cabernet Franc & Sauvignon Blanc got together in Bordeaux to create Cabernet Sauvignon Blanc. This is an example of what?

Crossing

Clones

Hybrids

Mutation

Crossing

95

Name the Green parts of the Vine

A shoot off which grows; leaves, buds, tendrils and flowers or berries

96

What treatment is there for Viruses and Bacterial diseases in the vineyard?

There are no treatments or cures. Only solution is to dig up vines and sanitise the land

97

Below what temperature is too cold for vines?

10c

98

What type of climate is this?

Low to medium continentality, medium to high rainfall all year long and often a cloudy growing season

Maritime

99

What is the objective of Summer pruning?

Trimming the canopy to limit vegatitive growth and direct sugar production to the grapes

100

Name 4 Natural factors affecting style, quality and price of wines.

Grape selection

Climate

Weather

Soil

101

Fertilisation; Vitis Vinifera fertilised with any other type of V. Vinifera is called what?

Crossing

102

Name 4 Human factors affecting style, quality and price of wines.

Grape Growing

Wine Making

Maturation

Market Forces

103

Fertilisation; Vitis Vinifera fertilised with another type of Vitis (not Vinifera) is called what?

A Hybrid

104

Name 4 temperature hazards

Winter freeze

Frost

Cold temperatures in Spring

Excessive heat

105

Name 3 water hazards

Drought

Too much

Hail

106

How would you describe the best possible soils for grape growing?

Well drained retaining only enough water

107

What are the effects of

Too much nutrients?

Too few nutrients?

 

Too much = vigorous green growth

To few = Ill health (Chlorosis)

108

Define vine training

Moulding the vines wood and shoots to the required shape

109

What is a trellis?

Stakes and wires used to support the trained vines

110

What is the other (French) name for Replacement Cane pruning

Guyot (single or double Guyot)

111

Bud management; What happens is there are too few buds left after pruning?

Each bud has access to too much carbohydrate energy and will grow over vigorously

112

Bud management; What happens is there are too many buds left after pruning?

Each bud will not have access to enough carbohydrate energy and the vine will struggle to ripen the crop load

113

Vine density; what density would you use, and why, where there is

Very limited water

Low density planting because the vines won't have to compete for the limited water

114

Vine density; what density would you use, and why, where there is

Low nutrients with sufficient water

High density - To provide competition between the vines additionally there should be tight control of the number of buds

115

Vine density; what density would you use, and why, where there is

High levels of both nutrients and water

Low density planting but with multiple cordons or canes