Flashcards in Spain Deck (59):
Which are the only 2 regions holding DOCa status?
Rioja and Priorat
What does DOCa stand for?
Denominación de Origen Calificada
What term does Priorat use instead of DOCa?
DOQ = Denominació d'Originen Qualificada
What are Vinos de Pago?
Single estates of high reputation who grow the grapes, vinify and mature the wines on the estate
What are PGI wines called in Spain?
Vino de la Tierra (VdlT)
What is the correct order for Gran Reserva, Reserva, Joven, Crianza
Joven, Crianza, Reserva, Gran Reserva
What is the minimum ageing for Joven wines
- In oak
- in bottle
Joven wines are fresh and youthful so there is no ageing requirement, they're drunk young
What is the minimum ageing for Crianza wines
- In oak
- in bottle
24 months total
6 in barrel (12 if Rioja red)
18 in bottle
What is the minimum ageing for Reserva wines
- In oak
- in bottle
36 months total
12 in barrel
24 in bottle
What is the minimum ageing for Gran Reserva wines
- In oak
- in bottle
60 months in total
18 in barrel (24 if Rioja red)
42 in bottle
What is the National grape of Spain and in which regions is it extensively used?
Rioja, Navarra, Ribera del Duero, Toro and
La Mancha and Veldepeñas where it is called 'Cencibel'
What is Tempranillo called in La Mancha and Veldepeñas?
What is the grape Carineña called in
Mazuelo in Rioja
Carignan in France
What 4 black grapes are permitted in Rioja?
Tempranillo, Garnacha, Graciano, Mazuelo
Whilst others are used what are the 3 grapes commonly used in Priorat?
Old vine Garnacha, old vine Carineña and Cabernet Sauvignon
What is the soil in Priorat called, what is its make up and what does it do?
Red slate with small particles of Mica which reflects heat into the vines, conserves heat over night. In between the layers of slate is powdered clay, which holds water
What are the 3 regions ofRioja and what are their climates?
Rioja Alta, Rioja Alvesa - Maritime
Rioja Baja - Warm Continental with a risk of drought
What is the French grape Mourvèdre called in Spain?
What are the 6 key wine regions of Spain?
The Duero Valley
The North West
Castilla La Mancha
What are the ideal growing conditions for Tempranillo?
Needs heat to develop flavour but moderating sea breezes and/or altitude to provide a diurnal range to maintain acidity.
Where would you usually find Monastrell?
What is the grape called in France?
What are the characteristics, aromas and flavours of the grape?
Somewhere hot and sunny like Valencia, Jumilla and Yecla
In France the grape is called Mourvèdre
Deep colour, full body, high tannin and alcohol with flavours of ripe blackberry fruit
Why would you use some Graciano making Rioja?
Use a small % in the finest wines to add concentrated black fruit flavours, acidity and tannins
Why might you use Carineña?
To add acidity, tannin and colour.
Ideal blended with Tempranillo or with Garnacha in Priorat
Mencia isn't used widely but which DO does focus on it?
What aromas and flavours does it bring?
Used extensively in Bierzo
Likes a moderate climate, brings fresh fruit, medium~high acidity and sometimes slight herbaceous
Where will you find Airen widely planted?
What style of wine does it make?
Somewhere hot; La Mancha and Valdepeñas
What is the traditional white grape of Rioja?
What can it be used to make?
Can be unoaked with subtle herb and spice. Traditionally used to make heavily oaked, oxidised traditional style white Rioja
What white grape am I?
I am highly susceptible to oxidation but with protective winemaking can make light bodied, high acidity, wine with flavours of peach and melon.
What is the grape of Rias Baixas?
What are the characteristics of Garnacha Tinta?
In which 4 regions is it used extensively?
What is it called in France?
Hi alcohol with concentrated spiced red fruit.
Used extensively in Rioja, Navarra, Carineña and Calatayud and old vine Garnacha is key in Priorat. Also extensively used to make Rosados.
Called Grenache in France
What are the 6 black 'Spanish' grapes?
Garnacha Tinto (Grenache)
Carineña (Carignan) - Mazuelo in Rioja
What are the four main white 'Spanish' grapes?
Macabao (Viura in Rioja)
Where are most VdlT wines produced?
Castilla y Leon
With the exception of NW Spain, heat and lack of water are the biggest challenges to growing grapes in Spain.
If you were managing a vineyard how and why would you manage density and pruning? What is one potential major drawback?
Low density bush trained vines = maximise the water available to each vine and shading the fruit from excessive heat.
The drawback is bush vines cannot be mechanically harvested.
Consider 'modified' VSP so the shoots are allowed to flop over the grapes giving them shade and allowing mechanical harvesting.
What is the climate and soil of Rioja Alta and Alvesa?
At what altitude are most vineyards?
Maritime with clay and limestone soil
What is the climate of Rioja Baha and one potential risk?
Warm continental with potential risk of drought
What styles of wine can be made in Rioja?
Semi-carbonic, light and fruity with low tannin
Traditionally de-stem and crush, fermented traditionally, possibly heavy cap management and extended maceration = heavily extracted wines, matured in American / French oak.
What is the Meseta Central and what is the climate like?
A huge plateau, in the centre of Spain, cut off from maritime influence due to being encircled by mountains has a hot continental climate with low rainfall. Below freezing temps are common in Winter. In Summer temps can be moderated by the cool nights of altitude sites.
What is the climate in Navarra and what style of wines come from there?
Similar climate to Rioja but cooler and wetter near the mountains.
Red wines are very similar to Rioja, additionally fresh rosados made from Garnacha which has been picked earlier to maintain some acidity. Fermented protectively to fruity rosado.
Where is Navarra located?
North and east of Rioja running into the foothills of the Pyrenees
Where are Carineña and Calatayud located?
South of Rioja Baja (south of the Ebro)
What styles of wine are commonly associated with Carineña and Calatayud?
- Fruity inexpensive wines from Garnacha
- Higher quality wines from old vine Garnacha and Carineña giving greater flavour intensity and structure
What are the two regions that make up Catalunya?
Penedes and Priorat
Where are the vineyards of Priorat located, what's the climate like and what black grapes predominate?
Inland hills. Long hot, dry, summers with low annual rainfall.
Ideal conditions for old vine Garnacha and Carineña. Cab Sav is also grown and added to blends.
Describe a usual red wine from Priorat
Deeply coloured with high tannins, med to high alc with concentrated black fruit and toasty French oak.
Why are vineyards in Priorat expensive and time consuming to manage?
Bush vines are managed on steep slopes meaning Mechanical harvesting is impossible.
What is the climate in Ribera del Duero?
Short, hot, dry Summers with very cold Winters
Where are the vineyards of the Ribera del Duero located?
On the highest part of the Meseta Central with some vineyards at 850m
What is the dominant black grape variety in Ribera del Duero?
Tempranillo (aka Tinto Fino)
Describe a 'typical' Ribera del Duero red wine
Dark in colour, concentrated fruit flavours with high tannin
Where is Toro located, what is the climate like and what type wine does it produce?
West of Ribera del Duero, NW of Rueda.
High daytime temps.
Reds are full flavoured with intense fruit flavours, high tannin and high alcohol
What is significant about Rueda and what is the climate?
Continental climate with cool Summer nights
Mainly white wines produced from Verdejo and Sauvignon Blanc
Whare is Rias Baixas located and what is the dominant grape?
NW Spain on the Atlantic coast. Maritime climate, wet.
Mainly Albariño producing high acidity wines with ripe stone fruit flavours.
Where is Bierzo, what is the climate like and what wines does it mainly produce?
West of Rias Baixas, in the mountains between Galicia and the Meseta Central. Moderate climate with a cooling maritime influence.
Mainly produces elegant red wines from Mencia with natural high acidity and red fruit aromas. Best wines come from old vines grown on steep slopes.
Where is The Levante wine region?
What sub regions make it up?
On the Mediterranean coast, centered around Valencia
Valencia, Jumilla and Yecla
What is the most planted grape in Valencia and what type of wines does it generally produce?
Monastrell (Mourvèdre) is the most planted grape although a range of local and International grapes are planted.
Largely produces value for money wines
Where is Jumilla and Yecla located, what is the climate like, what the dominant grape and what is the general style of wine produced.
Inland from Valencia
Hot and arid
Mostly youthful and fruity
What are the main red and white grape varieties grown in Valdepeñas?
Red = Cencibel (Tempranillo)
White = Airen
The region has a reputation for producing half decent wines
Broadly, what are the three climate zones in Spain and where are they?
North and North West including Rioja Alta and Altesa - Moderate Maritime with rain
North East from Catalunya, down Mediterranean coast, to Valencia - Warm Mediterranean moderated by sea breezes or altitude cooling in places.
On The Meseta Central - Cut off from Maritime influence by a ring of mountains giving a hot Continental climate