Lecture 1 - The Cell Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 - The Cell Deck (38)
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1
Q
What do you have to do to look at something at the cellular level?
A
1. Preserve the tissue through fixation (Light/Electron)
2. Embed and Section
3. Stain
2
Q
How to preserve the tissue for Light Microscopy
A
Formalin
3
Q
How to preserve the tissue for Electron Microscopy
A
Glutaraldehyde + Osmium Tetroxide
4
Q
How to embed for Light Microscopy
A
Paraffin (1-10um sections)
5
Q
How to embed for EM
A
Resin (100nm sections)
6
Q
How to stain for Light Microscopy
A
Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E)
7
Q
How to stain for EM
A
Osmium tetroxide
8
Q
Hematoxylin stains _____ this color: ____
A
Acids, blue
9
Q
Eosin stains _____ this color: _____
A
Bases, pink
10
Q
What parts of the cell are acidic?
A
DNA
RNA
Ribosomes
11
Q
What inside the cell would be considered basic?
A
Collagen
Proteins
12
Q
Advantages of Light Microscopy?
A
Many special stains
Many special techniques
Determining acids and bases
13
Q
Resolving power of LM
A
200nm
14
Q
Resolving power of EM
A
50pm
15
Q
What are plasma membranes made of?
A
Cholesterol
Phospholipids
Proteins
Carbohydrates
16
Q
What is the purpose of the phos bilayer? (2)
A
1. Allows lipid soluble molecules to freely diffuse across
2. Prevents water soluble molecules from freely diffusing across
17
Q
What is the function of cholesterol?
A
-keeps the membrane fluid
18
Q
What makes up the glycocalyx?
A
Carbohydrates
19
Q
What is the function of the glycocalyx?
A
Identification for immune cells to recognize self from non-self
20
Q
Distinguishing features of mitochondria?
A
-Elongated structure
-Inner/outer mitochondrial membrane --> cristae
-matrix granule
21
Q
What organelles are involved w/ the synthesis of integral membrane and exported proteins?
A
-Rough ER
-Golgi
-Ribosomes
-Secretory Vessicles
22
Q
If mRNA goes through free ribosomes, the mRNA is destined as _____
A
Cytosolic proteins
23
Q
If mRNA goes to the ER, the mRNA is destined as ____
A
Membrane, secreted proteins
24
Q
What color will a cell be stained that contains a lot of ribosomes?
A
Blue - Hematoxylin
RNA = acidic -> pics up basic stain
25
Q
What face of the golgi do transport vessicles come in?
A
cis face
26
Q
What face of the golgi do transport vessicles leave?
A
trans face
27
Q
What stain do you use for lysosomes?
A
Toluidine Blue
28
Q
Components of cytoskeleton
A
microfilaments - 7nm
intermediate filaments - 10-12nm
microtubules - 24nm
29
Q
What makes up microfilaments?
A
Actin
30
Q
What makes up microtubules?
A
Tubulin
31
Q
What makes up intermediate filaments?
A
Keratin
Neurofilament protein
Lamin
Vimentin
32
Q
Function of microfilaments? (4)
A
1. Provide stiffness/structure/shape to membrane
2. Responsible for protrusions, such as microvilli and phogocytic projections
3. Provide motility for cells (macrophages/neutrophils/mast cells)
4. Contraction of muscle cells
33
Q
Actin attaches to the ____ end and releases from the _____ end.
A
+, -
34
Q
What causes cellular dystrophy?
A
Mutation in dystrophin causes the connection between the actin cytoskleton and the plasma membrane to be lost
35
Q
Microtubules attach at the ____ end and release at the _____ end.
A
+,+
36
Q
What is the function of microtubules?
A
1. Vessicle movement and organelle placement
2. Mitotic spindle
3. Cytoskeleton in cilia and flagella (movement)
37
Q
What are centrosomes made of?
A
1. Centrioles (microtubule triplets)
2. Cloud of protein
Nucleate microtubules and anchor their (-) ends.
38
Q
What does MTOC and what is it?
A
1. Microtubule-organizing center
2. Centrosome