Lecture 1 - The Cell Flashcards Preview

Histology > Lecture 1 - The Cell > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 - The Cell Deck (38):
1

What do you have to do to look at something at the cellular level?

1. Preserve the tissue through fixation (Light/Electron)
2. Embed and Section
3. Stain

2

How to preserve the tissue for Light Microscopy

Formalin

3

How to preserve the tissue for Electron Microscopy

Glutaraldehyde + Osmium Tetroxide

4

How to embed for Light Microscopy

Paraffin (1-10um sections)

5

How to embed for EM

Resin (100nm sections)

6

How to stain for Light Microscopy

Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E)

7

How to stain for EM

Osmium tetroxide

8

Hematoxylin stains _____ this color: ____

Acids, blue

9

Eosin stains _____ this color: _____

Bases, pink

10

What parts of the cell are acidic?

DNA
RNA
Ribosomes

11

What inside the cell would be considered basic?

Collagen
Proteins

12

Advantages of Light Microscopy?

Many special stains
Many special techniques
Determining acids and bases

13

Resolving power of LM

200nm

14

Resolving power of EM

50pm

15

What are plasma membranes made of?

Cholesterol
Phospholipids
Proteins
Carbohydrates

16

What is the purpose of the phos bilayer? (2)

1. Allows lipid soluble molecules to freely diffuse across
2. Prevents water soluble molecules from freely diffusing across

17

What is the function of cholesterol?

-keeps the membrane fluid

18

What makes up the glycocalyx?

Carbohydrates

19

What is the function of the glycocalyx?

Identification for immune cells to recognize self from non-self

20

Distinguishing features of mitochondria?

-Elongated structure
-Inner/outer mitochondrial membrane --> cristae
-matrix granule

21

What organelles are involved w/ the synthesis of integral membrane and exported proteins?

-Rough ER
-Golgi
-Ribosomes
-Secretory Vessicles

22

If mRNA goes through free ribosomes, the mRNA is destined as _____

Cytosolic proteins

23

If mRNA goes to the ER, the mRNA is destined as ____

Membrane, secreted proteins

24

What color will a cell be stained that contains a lot of ribosomes?

Blue - Hematoxylin
RNA = acidic -> pics up basic stain

25

What face of the golgi do transport vessicles come in?

cis face

26

What face of the golgi do transport vessicles leave?

trans face

27

What stain do you use for lysosomes?

Toluidine Blue

28

Components of cytoskeleton

microfilaments - 7nm
intermediate filaments - 10-12nm
microtubules - 24nm

29

What makes up microfilaments?

Actin

30

What makes up microtubules?

Tubulin

31

What makes up intermediate filaments?

Keratin
Neurofilament protein
Lamin
Vimentin

32

Function of microfilaments? (4)

1. Provide stiffness/structure/shape to membrane
2. Responsible for protrusions, such as microvilli and phogocytic projections
3. Provide motility for cells (macrophages/neutrophils/mast cells)
4. Contraction of muscle cells

33

Actin attaches to the ____ end and releases from the _____ end.

+, -

34

What causes cellular dystrophy?

Mutation in dystrophin causes the connection between the actin cytoskleton and the plasma membrane to be lost

35

Microtubules attach at the ____ end and release at the _____ end.

+,+

36

What is the function of microtubules?

1. Vessicle movement and organelle placement
2. Mitotic spindle
3. Cytoskeleton in cilia and flagella (movement)

37

What are centrosomes made of?

1. Centrioles (microtubule triplets)
2. Cloud of protein
Nucleate microtubules and anchor their (-) ends.

38

What does MTOC and what is it?

1. Microtubule-organizing center
2. Centrosome