Lecture 16- Respiratory Flashcards Preview

Histology > Lecture 16- Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 16- Respiratory Deck (47):
1

What makes up the respiratory portion of the respiratory system?

- Respiratory bronchiole
- alveolar duct
- alveoli

2

What makes up the conduction portion of the respiratory system?

- nasal cavity
- pharynx
- larynx
- trachea
- bronchi
- bronchioles

3

If a person gets an upper respiratory infection this could involve which of the following structures?

Nasal Cavity

4

What are the functions of the conducting portions of the respiratory tract?

- conduit for air movement
- humidify air
- warm the air
- remove particulate material

5

What type of cells make up the majority of the respiratory epithelium?

Pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelial cells

6

What do goblet cells do in the respiratory epithelium?

Produce mucus that humidifies air and traps particles

7

What is the function of the cilia in the respiratory tract?

Beat and move mucus toward the pharynx to spit or swallow

8

Which type of epithelium covers the oropharynx?

Stratified squamous epithelial cells

9

What tissue lines the nasal cavity?

- olfactory epithelium superior to conchae
- respiratory epithelium lines rest of nasal cavity

10

Why does the lamina propria in the nasal cavity contain a large network of veins so close to the surface?

to warm the air

11

Nasal congestion associated with a cold occurs because the venous plexuses in the lamina propria under the conchae become?

Dilated- medications such as pseudafed contrict blood vessels in the nasal mucosa

12

What layers make up the olfactory epithelium?

- olfactory bulp
- bone
- lamina propria
- epithelial layer
- mucous layer with olfactory molecules

13

What types of cells are found in the mucous layer of olfactory epithelium?

- basal cells (stem cells)
- bipolar neuron (olfactory receptor)
- support cells

14

What is the larynx?

- voice box
- tube goes to trachea
- cartilage connected by ligaments helps maintain a rigid structure

15

What parts of the larynx are responsible for speech?

vocal folds or vocal cords

16

What type of epithelium covers the vestibular folds (false vocal cords) and vocal folds (true vocal cords)?

Vestibular folds- respiratory epithelium; vocal folds- stratified squamous

17

what type of muscle is in the vocalis muscle?

Striated muscle

18

What is the function of the trachealis?

Changes the diameter of the trachea (smooth muscle)

19

What are the layers of the traches?

- respiratory epithelium
- lamina propria
- submucosa (seromucous glands)
- perichondrium
- cartilage

20

The secondary branch of bronchi is also known as the...

lobar branch

21

The segmental bronchi is also known as the...

tertiary branch

22

What is the difference between trachea and bronchi?

- amount and location of cartilage
- amount and location of smooth muscle
- less mucous down deep in bronchi

23

What connects the C-shaped cartilage in the trachea?

Muscle

24

As you go down in the bronchioles there is _____ cartilage and _____ muscle

less cartilage, more muscle

25

What type of cartilage is in the trachea and bronchi?

Hyaline cartilage

26

A long time smoker developed chronic bronchitis. Why is there reduced mucociliary clearance and mucus plug formation in bronchi?

a decrease in the activity of ciliated epithelial cells

27

What is the difference between bronchi and the bronchioles?

Alveoli

28

What are the bronchiole?

- intralobular bronchiole
- terminal bronchiole
- respiratory bronchiole
- alveolar duct
- alveoli
* bottom 3 are respiratory

29

What layers are found in bronchiole?

epithelial layer and smooth muscles layer. No cartilage or submucosal gland.

30

What additional fibers are found in the smooth muscle of bronchioles?

Elastic

31

Are lymphocytes found in bronchioles?

Yes

32

What type of epithelial layer is in the terminal bronchiole?

Simple cuboidal

33

What are clara cells?

Non ciliated, fluid secreting cells found in the terminal and respiratory bronchioles

34

How do Clara cells protect the bronchiolar epithelium?

- secrete surfacant like material
- detoxify substances
- proliferate/differentiate to maintain the ciliated cell population

35

What is the difference between the terminal and respiratory bronchioles?

No much, respiratory bronchioles have some alveoli and terminal bronchioles have more.

36

What is the center of an alveolar sac called?

atrium

37

What surrounds the alveoli?

- Capillaries
- Elastic fibers
- Connective tissue

38

What cells make up the respiratory membrane?

- Capillary with RBC
- Type I alveolar cells
- Alveolar CT

39

What do Type II alveolar cells secrete?

surfactant to lower the surface tension so alveoli won't collapse

40

What is the importance of alveolar macrophages?

Phagocytize and particulate material that gets into the alveolus

41

What is Type I alveolar cell so thin?

facilitate diffusion of O2 and CO2

42

What do Type II alveolar cells do?

Produce surfactant

43

An infant was born premature with respiratory distress syndrome. The alveoli collapsed on exhalation. What's not working properly?

Type II alveolar cells

44

Is the lung covered with a serosa, serous membrane, or adventitia?

Serosa

45

Describe the pleura

Visceral and parietal pleura with a fluid filled pleura cavity in between

46

What is the function of the pleural fluid?

- allows visceral and parietal pleura to slide easily against each other during ventilation
- provides mechanical coupling between the chest wall and lung

47

Will the visceral or parietal pleura have a mesothelium layer?

Visceral