Lecture 16- Respiratory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16- Respiratory Deck (47)
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1
Q
What makes up the respiratory portion of the respiratory system?
A
- Respiratory bronchiole
- alveolar duct
- alveoli
2
Q
What makes up the conduction portion of the respiratory system?
A
- nasal cavity
- pharynx
- larynx
- trachea
- bronchi
- bronchioles
3
Q
If a person gets an upper respiratory infection this could involve which of the following structures?
A
Nasal Cavity
4
Q
What are the functions of the conducting portions of the respiratory tract?
A
- conduit for air movement
- humidify air
- warm the air
- remove particulate material
5
Q
What type of cells make up the majority of the respiratory epithelium?
A
Pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelial cells
6
Q
What do goblet cells do in the respiratory epithelium?
A
Produce mucus that humidifies air and traps particles
7
Q
What is the function of the cilia in the respiratory tract?
A
Beat and move mucus toward the pharynx to spit or swallow
8
Q
Which type of epithelium covers the oropharynx?
A
Stratified squamous epithelial cells
9
Q
What tissue lines the nasal cavity?
A
- olfactory epithelium superior to conchae
- respiratory epithelium lines rest of nasal cavity
10
Q
Why does the lamina propria in the nasal cavity contain a large network of veins so close to the surface?
A
to warm the air
11
Q
Nasal congestion associated with a cold occurs because the venous plexuses in the lamina propria under the conchae become?
A
Dilated- medications such as pseudafed contrict blood vessels in the nasal mucosa
12
Q
What layers make up the olfactory epithelium?
A
- olfactory bulp
- bone
- lamina propria
- epithelial layer
- mucous layer with olfactory molecules
13
Q
What types of cells are found in the mucous layer of olfactory epithelium?
A
- basal cells (stem cells)
- bipolar neuron (olfactory receptor)
- support cells
14
Q
What is the larynx?
A
- voice box
- tube goes to trachea
- cartilage connected by ligaments helps maintain a rigid structure
15
Q
What parts of the larynx are responsible for speech?
A
vocal folds or vocal cords
16
Q
What type of epithelium covers the vestibular folds (false vocal cords) and vocal folds (true vocal cords)?
A
Vestibular folds- respiratory epithelium; vocal folds- stratified squamous
17
Q
what type of muscle is in the vocalis muscle?
A
Striated muscle
18
Q
What is the function of the trachealis?
A
Changes the diameter of the trachea (smooth muscle)
19
Q
What are the layers of the traches?
A
- respiratory epithelium
- lamina propria
- submucosa (seromucous glands)
- perichondrium
- cartilage
20
Q
The secondary branch of bronchi is also known as the...
A
lobar branch
21
Q
The segmental bronchi is also known as the...
A
tertiary branch
22
Q
What is the difference between trachea and bronchi?
A
- amount and location of cartilage
- amount and location of smooth muscle
- less mucous down deep in bronchi
23
Q
What connects the C-shaped cartilage in the trachea?
A
Muscle
24
Q
As you go down in the bronchioles there is _____ cartilage and _____ muscle
A
less cartilage, more muscle
25
Q
What type of cartilage is in the trachea and bronchi?
A
Hyaline cartilage
26
Q
A long time smoker developed chronic bronchitis. Why is there reduced mucociliary clearance and mucus plug formation in bronchi?
A
a decrease in the activity of ciliated epithelial cells
27
Q
What is the difference between bronchi and the bronchioles?
A
Alveoli
28
Q
What are the bronchiole?
A
- intralobular bronchiole
- terminal bronchiole
- respiratory bronchiole
- alveolar duct
- alveoli
* bottom 3 are respiratory
29
Q
What layers are found in bronchiole?
A
epithelial layer and smooth muscles layer. No cartilage or submucosal gland.
30
Q
What additional fibers are found in the smooth muscle of bronchioles?
A
Elastic
31
Q
Are lymphocytes found in bronchioles?
A
Yes
32
Q
What type of epithelial layer is in the terminal bronchiole?
A
Simple cuboidal
33
Q
What are clara cells?
A
Non ciliated, fluid secreting cells found in the terminal and respiratory bronchioles
34
Q
How do Clara cells protect the bronchiolar epithelium?
A
- secrete surfacant like material
- detoxify substances
- proliferate/differentiate to maintain the ciliated cell population
35
Q
What is the difference between the terminal and respiratory bronchioles?
A
No much, respiratory bronchioles have some alveoli and terminal bronchioles have more.
36
Q
What is the center of an alveolar sac called?
A
atrium
37
Q
What surrounds the alveoli?
A
- Capillaries
- Elastic fibers
- Connective tissue
38
Q
What cells make up the respiratory membrane?
A
- Capillary with RBC
- Type I alveolar cells
- Alveolar CT
39
Q
What do Type II alveolar cells secrete?
A
surfactant to lower the surface tension so alveoli won't collapse
40
Q
What is the importance of alveolar macrophages?
A
Phagocytize and particulate material that gets into the alveolus
41
Q
What is Type I alveolar cell so thin?
A
facilitate diffusion of O2 and CO2
42
Q
What do Type II alveolar cells do?
A
Produce surfactant
43
Q
An infant was born premature with respiratory distress syndrome. The alveoli collapsed on exhalation. What's not working properly?
A
Type II alveolar cells
44
Q
Is the lung covered with a serosa, serous membrane, or adventitia?
A
Serosa
45
Q
Describe the pleura
A
Visceral and parietal pleura with a fluid filled pleura cavity in between
46
Q
What is the function of the pleural fluid?
A
- allows visceral and parietal pleura to slide easily against each other during ventilation
- provides mechanical coupling between the chest wall and lung
47
Q
Will the visceral or parietal pleura have a mesothelium layer?
A
Visceral