Flashcards in Lecture 16- Respiratory Deck (47):
What makes up the respiratory portion of the respiratory system?
- Respiratory bronchiole
- alveolar duct
What makes up the conduction portion of the respiratory system?
- nasal cavity
If a person gets an upper respiratory infection this could involve which of the following structures?
What are the functions of the conducting portions of the respiratory tract?
- conduit for air movement
- humidify air
- warm the air
- remove particulate material
What type of cells make up the majority of the respiratory epithelium?
Pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelial cells
What do goblet cells do in the respiratory epithelium?
Produce mucus that humidifies air and traps particles
What is the function of the cilia in the respiratory tract?
Beat and move mucus toward the pharynx to spit or swallow
Which type of epithelium covers the oropharynx?
Stratified squamous epithelial cells
What tissue lines the nasal cavity?
- olfactory epithelium superior to conchae
- respiratory epithelium lines rest of nasal cavity
Why does the lamina propria in the nasal cavity contain a large network of veins so close to the surface?
to warm the air
Nasal congestion associated with a cold occurs because the venous plexuses in the lamina propria under the conchae become?
Dilated- medications such as pseudafed contrict blood vessels in the nasal mucosa
What layers make up the olfactory epithelium?
- olfactory bulp
- lamina propria
- epithelial layer
- mucous layer with olfactory molecules
What types of cells are found in the mucous layer of olfactory epithelium?
- basal cells (stem cells)
- bipolar neuron (olfactory receptor)
- support cells
What is the larynx?
- voice box
- tube goes to trachea
- cartilage connected by ligaments helps maintain a rigid structure
What parts of the larynx are responsible for speech?
vocal folds or vocal cords
What type of epithelium covers the vestibular folds (false vocal cords) and vocal folds (true vocal cords)?
Vestibular folds- respiratory epithelium; vocal folds- stratified squamous
what type of muscle is in the vocalis muscle?
What is the function of the trachealis?
Changes the diameter of the trachea (smooth muscle)
What are the layers of the traches?
- respiratory epithelium
- lamina propria
- submucosa (seromucous glands)
The secondary branch of bronchi is also known as the...
The segmental bronchi is also known as the...
What is the difference between trachea and bronchi?
- amount and location of cartilage
- amount and location of smooth muscle
- less mucous down deep in bronchi
What connects the C-shaped cartilage in the trachea?
As you go down in the bronchioles there is _____ cartilage and _____ muscle
less cartilage, more muscle
What type of cartilage is in the trachea and bronchi?
A long time smoker developed chronic bronchitis. Why is there reduced mucociliary clearance and mucus plug formation in bronchi?
a decrease in the activity of ciliated epithelial cells
What is the difference between bronchi and the bronchioles?
What are the bronchiole?
- intralobular bronchiole
- terminal bronchiole
- respiratory bronchiole
- alveolar duct
* bottom 3 are respiratory
What layers are found in bronchiole?
epithelial layer and smooth muscles layer. No cartilage or submucosal gland.
What additional fibers are found in the smooth muscle of bronchioles?
Are lymphocytes found in bronchioles?
What type of epithelial layer is in the terminal bronchiole?
What are clara cells?
Non ciliated, fluid secreting cells found in the terminal and respiratory bronchioles
How do Clara cells protect the bronchiolar epithelium?
- secrete surfacant like material
- detoxify substances
- proliferate/differentiate to maintain the ciliated cell population
What is the difference between the terminal and respiratory bronchioles?
No much, respiratory bronchioles have some alveoli and terminal bronchioles have more.
What is the center of an alveolar sac called?
What surrounds the alveoli?
- Elastic fibers
- Connective tissue
What cells make up the respiratory membrane?
- Capillary with RBC
- Type I alveolar cells
- Alveolar CT
What do Type II alveolar cells secrete?
surfactant to lower the surface tension so alveoli won't collapse
What is the importance of alveolar macrophages?
Phagocytize and particulate material that gets into the alveolus
What is Type I alveolar cell so thin?
facilitate diffusion of O2 and CO2
What do Type II alveolar cells do?
An infant was born premature with respiratory distress syndrome. The alveoli collapsed on exhalation. What's not working properly?
Type II alveolar cells
Is the lung covered with a serosa, serous membrane, or adventitia?
Describe the pleura
Visceral and parietal pleura with a fluid filled pleura cavity in between
What is the function of the pleural fluid?
- allows visceral and parietal pleura to slide easily against each other during ventilation
- provides mechanical coupling between the chest wall and lung