Lecture 18- Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 18- Endocrine System Deck (61)
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1

What do all endocrine glands have in common (or what defines an endocrine gland?

They secrete hormones into the blood

2

What is paracrine secretion?

Hormone to a target cell

3

What is autocrine secretion?

Hormone to self

4

What makes up the posterior pituitary gland?

- infundibulum or pituitary stalk
- pars nervosa
- tissue develops from brain

5

What makes up the anterior pituitary gland?

- pars tuberalis
- pars intermedia
- pars distalis
- tissue derived from ectoderm

6

What are sinusoids?

Essentially giant capillaries

7

What are degranulated cells?

Cells that turn back into an acidophil or basophil

8

What are progenitor cells?

Cells that go on to produce other cell types

9

What are chromophobes?

Either degranulated cells or progenitor cells

10

What are the acidophils?

- somatotropes (growth hormone)
- mammotropes (prolactin)

11

What are the basophils?

- gonadotropes (FSH and LH)
- thyrotropes (TSH)
- corticotropes (POMC) cleaves to (ACTH)

12

What is the best way to differentiate these cells?

- immunohistochemistry

13

The blood supply to the median eminence, infundibulum, and anterior pituitary is a portal system? What does that mean

Two capillary beds

14

What does the pars tuberalis secrete?

mainly basophilic gonadotropes

15

What does the pars intermedia secrete?

basophilic cortico tropes. POMC cleaved to melanocyte stimulating hormone. In pars distalis POMC cleaved to ACTH

16

What does oxytocin do?

- milk let down
- uterine contraction during labor

17

What are pituicytes?

Glial cells that surround the unmyelinated axons

18

What are herring bodies?

Cells that store the hormone

19

Where are the neuronal cell bodies for the posterior pituitary?

hypothalamus

20

Where are the alpha cells located in the islets of langerhans?

Along the periphery- glucagon- raises blood glucose

21

Where are the beta cells located in the islets of langerhans?

On the interior- insulin that lowers blood glucose

22

Where is the adrenal gland found?

On top of the kidney, suprarenal gland

23

What are the three layers of the adrenal gland?

- capsule
- cortex derived from mesoderm
- medulla derived from neural crest

24

What are the three layers of the cortex?

- zona glomerulosa
- zona fasciculata
- zona reticularis

25

They precursor to hormones produced in the adrenal cortex is cholesterol. What does this tell you?

Lipid soluble, hydrophobic

26

What is secreted in the zona glomerulosa?

aldosterone

27

What are mineralocorticoid and give an example.

aldosterone, influence salt and water balance

28

What does aldosterone do?

Released from the adrenal gland under low BP to stimulate Na+ retention and for the kidney to release renin and angiotensin II

29

What effect does aldosterone have on blood K+ levels?

increases secretion of K+ in the collecting duct to lower blood K+

30

What does the zona fasciuluta release?

glucocorticoids (eg cortisol), washed out lipid droplets that contained steroids