Lecture 11 - Lymphatics and Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11 - Lymphatics and Immune System Deck (31)
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1
Q
General Flow of Lymphatic Vessels
A
1. Excess interstitial fluid is taken up by a lymphatic capillary
2. Moves through lymphatic vessels
3. Arrives at lymph node (filters lymph)
4. Continues to other node(s)
5. Returns to vasculature (subclavian vein)
2
Q
Where does excess interstitial fluid come from?
A
Blood is filtered at the arterial end of a capilary
Most, but not all filtrate is reabsorbed at the venous end
Fluid "left behind" is taken up by lymphatics
3
Q
What is filtered by the lymph?
A
Water
Electrolytes
Small amount of protein
4
Q
What is the anchoring filament between the endothelial cell and lymph made of?
A
Elastin
5
Q
Will proteins be easily transported into the lymphatic capillary?
A
Yes.
Lymph space is big, so it is easily transported to capillary. Only a small amount of protein though.
6
Q
A blockage in a lymphatic vessel will cause _______ and _______.
A
1. Increase in protein and water in interstitial space.
2. Non-pitting edema
7
Q
A blockage in a venule vessel will cause _______ and _______.
A
1. Increase in water in interstitial space (Increased hydrostatic pressure)
2. Pitting Edema
8
Q
What moves lymph towards thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct and what prevents it from backing up?
A
Smooth Muscles in Wall
Skeletal Muscles
Valves
9
Q
Types of Immune Responses
A
Innate
Adaptive
10
Q
Features of Innate Immune Response
A
1. Non-specific
2. Fast/always present
3. No memory
11
Q
Features of Adaptive Immune Response
A
1. Specific
2. Slower to develop
3. Memory
12
Q
Types of Memory Responses of the Adaptive Immune System
A
1. Humoral - Antibodies
2. Cell Mediated - T Cells
13
Q
Parts of the innate immune system (5)
A
1. Immune Cells
2. Mucous Membranes
3. Skin
4. Stomach Acid
5. Saliva
14
Q
What do the cells of the immune system need to do?
A
1. Detect and identify it as foreign
2. Communicate w/ other immune cells to rally an organized response
3. Coordinate the response among all participants
4. Destroy or suppress the invader
15
Q
What types of cells are involved w/ the innate immune system?
A
1. Macrophages
2. Mast Cells
3. Natural Killer Cells
4. Neutrophils
5. Plasma Cells
16
Q
What is a main contributor to the redness and swelling associated w/ inflammation?
A
Degranulation of mast cells - release histamine causing swelling and redness
17
Q
What happens after a tissue is damaged?
A
1. Mast Cell, Injured Cell, and Macrophage Release Cytokines and Chemokines
2. Histamine, Prostaglandins, and Leukotrines act as inflammatory mediators and cause redness and swelling
18
Q
What are cytokines and chemokines?
A
Protein messengers that are released from a cell and affect the differentiation/activity of another cell
-Chemo attractive, chemotactic cytokines
19
Q
Where does pus in a wound come from?
A
Macrophages and neutrophils were attracted to the site of infection
They recognize the bacteria as foreign
They phagocytize the bacteria
20
Q
Microbes have molecules that are ______ from those on our cells
A
different
21
Q
What are PAMPs?
A
Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns
The collection of different molecules on microbes that are different from those on our cells
*how body recognizes self from non-self*
22
Q
What cell type recogonizes PAMPs? What happens when they do?
A
Macrophage or Neutrophil
Phagocytize bacteria (if there is a lot, you get pus)
23
Q
How does the body fight viruses?
A
Natural Killer Cells
24
Q
What do Natural Killer Cells attack?
A
Virally Infected Cells
Tumor Cells
25
Q
What cell mediates Adaptive Immunity?
A
Lymphocytes
26
Q
What do lymphocytes differentiate into?
A
B Cell, T Cell Precurosr, NK Cell
27
Q
Where does a lymphoblast differentiate into immunce cells/precursors? Where do the cells go afterwards?
A
Bone Marrow
Blood
28
Q
Once in the blood, where do B cells go?
A
Connective tissue, epithelia, secondary lymphoid organs
29
Q
Once in the blood, where do NK cells go?
A
CT, epithelia, seconary lymphoid organs
30
Q
Once in the blood, where do T cell precurors (CD4-, CD8-) go?
A
Thymus
Differentiate into CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells, then go to CT, epithelia, and secondary lymphoid organs
31
Q
What are naive cells? List them.
A
Cells that have not been exposed to antigen.
1. B Cell
2. T Cell Precursors (Blood) and Matured T Cells (Thymus)
3. NK Cells