Lecture 11 - Lymphatics and Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11 - Lymphatics and Immune System Deck (31):
1

General Flow of Lymphatic Vessels

1. Excess interstitial fluid is taken up by a lymphatic capillary
2. Moves through lymphatic vessels
3. Arrives at lymph node (filters lymph)
4. Continues to other node(s)
5. Returns to vasculature (subclavian vein)

2

Where does excess interstitial fluid come from?

Blood is filtered at the arterial end of a capilary
Most, but not all filtrate is reabsorbed at the venous end
Fluid "left behind" is taken up by lymphatics

3

What is filtered by the lymph?

Water
Electrolytes
Small amount of protein

4

What is the anchoring filament between the endothelial cell and lymph made of?

Elastin

5

Will proteins be easily transported into the lymphatic capillary?

Yes.
Lymph space is big, so it is easily transported to capillary. Only a small amount of protein though.

6

A blockage in a lymphatic vessel will cause _______ and _______.

1. Increase in protein and water in interstitial space.
2. Non-pitting edema

7

A blockage in a venule vessel will cause _______ and _______.

1. Increase in water in interstitial space (Increased hydrostatic pressure)
2. Pitting Edema

8

What moves lymph towards thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct and what prevents it from backing up?

Smooth Muscles in Wall
Skeletal Muscles
Valves

9

Types of Immune Responses

Innate
Adaptive

10

Features of Innate Immune Response

1. Non-specific
2. Fast/always present
3. No memory

11

Features of Adaptive Immune Response

1. Specific
2. Slower to develop
3. Memory

12

Types of Memory Responses of the Adaptive Immune System

1. Humoral - Antibodies
2. Cell Mediated - T Cells

13

Parts of the innate immune system (5)

1. Immune Cells
2. Mucous Membranes
3. Skin
4. Stomach Acid
5. Saliva

14

What do the cells of the immune system need to do?

1. Detect and identify it as foreign
2. Communicate w/ other immune cells to rally an organized response
3. Coordinate the response among all participants
4. Destroy or suppress the invader

15

What types of cells are involved w/ the innate immune system?

1. Macrophages
2. Mast Cells
3. Natural Killer Cells
4. Neutrophils
5. Plasma Cells

16

What is a main contributor to the redness and swelling associated w/ inflammation?

Degranulation of mast cells - release histamine causing swelling and redness

17

What happens after a tissue is damaged?

1. Mast Cell, Injured Cell, and Macrophage Release Cytokines and Chemokines
2. Histamine, Prostaglandins, and Leukotrines act as inflammatory mediators and cause redness and swelling

18

What are cytokines and chemokines?

Protein messengers that are released from a cell and affect the differentiation/activity of another cell
-Chemo attractive, chemotactic cytokines

19

Where does pus in a wound come from?

Macrophages and neutrophils were attracted to the site of infection
They recognize the bacteria as foreign
They phagocytize the bacteria

20

Microbes have molecules that are ______ from those on our cells

different

21

What are PAMPs?

Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns
The collection of different molecules on microbes that are different from those on our cells
*how body recognizes self from non-self*

22

What cell type recogonizes PAMPs? What happens when they do?

Macrophage or Neutrophil
Phagocytize bacteria (if there is a lot, you get pus)

23

How does the body fight viruses?

Natural Killer Cells

24

What do Natural Killer Cells attack?

Virally Infected Cells
Tumor Cells

25

What cell mediates Adaptive Immunity?

Lymphocytes

26

What do lymphocytes differentiate into?

B Cell, T Cell Precurosr, NK Cell

27

Where does a lymphoblast differentiate into immunce cells/precursors? Where do the cells go afterwards?

Bone Marrow
Blood

28

Once in the blood, where do B cells go?

Connective tissue, epithelia, secondary lymphoid organs

29

Once in the blood, where do NK cells go?

CT, epithelia, seconary lymphoid organs

30

Once in the blood, where do T cell precurors (CD4-, CD8-) go?

Thymus
Differentiate into CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells, then go to CT, epithelia, and secondary lymphoid organs

31

What are naive cells? List them.

Cells that have not been exposed to antigen.
1. B Cell
2. T Cell Precursors (Blood) and Matured T Cells (Thymus)
3. NK Cells