Flashcards in Lecture 11 - Lymphatics and Immune System Deck (31):
General Flow of Lymphatic Vessels
1. Excess interstitial fluid is taken up by a lymphatic capillary
2. Moves through lymphatic vessels
3. Arrives at lymph node (filters lymph)
4. Continues to other node(s)
5. Returns to vasculature (subclavian vein)
Where does excess interstitial fluid come from?
Blood is filtered at the arterial end of a capilary
Most, but not all filtrate is reabsorbed at the venous end
Fluid "left behind" is taken up by lymphatics
What is filtered by the lymph?
Small amount of protein
What is the anchoring filament between the endothelial cell and lymph made of?
Will proteins be easily transported into the lymphatic capillary?
Lymph space is big, so it is easily transported to capillary. Only a small amount of protein though.
A blockage in a lymphatic vessel will cause _______ and _______.
1. Increase in protein and water in interstitial space.
2. Non-pitting edema
A blockage in a venule vessel will cause _______ and _______.
1. Increase in water in interstitial space (Increased hydrostatic pressure)
2. Pitting Edema
What moves lymph towards thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct and what prevents it from backing up?
Smooth Muscles in Wall
Types of Immune Responses
Features of Innate Immune Response
2. Fast/always present
3. No memory
Features of Adaptive Immune Response
2. Slower to develop
Types of Memory Responses of the Adaptive Immune System
1. Humoral - Antibodies
2. Cell Mediated - T Cells
Parts of the innate immune system (5)
1. Immune Cells
2. Mucous Membranes
4. Stomach Acid
What do the cells of the immune system need to do?
1. Detect and identify it as foreign
2. Communicate w/ other immune cells to rally an organized response
3. Coordinate the response among all participants
4. Destroy or suppress the invader
What types of cells are involved w/ the innate immune system?
2. Mast Cells
3. Natural Killer Cells
5. Plasma Cells
What is a main contributor to the redness and swelling associated w/ inflammation?
Degranulation of mast cells - release histamine causing swelling and redness
What happens after a tissue is damaged?
1. Mast Cell, Injured Cell, and Macrophage Release Cytokines and Chemokines
2. Histamine, Prostaglandins, and Leukotrines act as inflammatory mediators and cause redness and swelling
What are cytokines and chemokines?
Protein messengers that are released from a cell and affect the differentiation/activity of another cell
-Chemo attractive, chemotactic cytokines
Where does pus in a wound come from?
Macrophages and neutrophils were attracted to the site of infection
They recognize the bacteria as foreign
They phagocytize the bacteria
Microbes have molecules that are ______ from those on our cells
What are PAMPs?
Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns
The collection of different molecules on microbes that are different from those on our cells
*how body recognizes self from non-self*
What cell type recogonizes PAMPs? What happens when they do?
Macrophage or Neutrophil
Phagocytize bacteria (if there is a lot, you get pus)
How does the body fight viruses?
Natural Killer Cells
What do Natural Killer Cells attack?
Virally Infected Cells
What cell mediates Adaptive Immunity?
What do lymphocytes differentiate into?
B Cell, T Cell Precurosr, NK Cell
Where does a lymphoblast differentiate into immunce cells/precursors? Where do the cells go afterwards?
Once in the blood, where do B cells go?
Connective tissue, epithelia, secondary lymphoid organs
Once in the blood, where do NK cells go?
CT, epithelia, seconary lymphoid organs
Once in the blood, where do T cell precurors (CD4-, CD8-) go?
Differentiate into CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells, then go to CT, epithelia, and secondary lymphoid organs