Lecture 15 - Liver & Gallbladder Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15 - Liver & Gallbladder Deck (23)
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1
Q
General Function of Gallladder?
A
Store and Concentrate bile
2
Q
What is the organizational pattern of the liver?
A
1. Hexagonal Lobules
2. Portal Triads at connections
3. Cords of hepatocytes surround a central vein
3
Q
What type of capillaries are in the liver?
A
Sinusoid
4
Q
What is the flow of blood in the liver?
A
1. Mesenteric and other artieries
2. GI tract
3. Hepatic portal vein (along w/ hepatic artery)
4. Back to heart
5
Q
Where do sinusoids drain into?
A
Central vein
6
Q
What cells make up the linear cords?
A
Hepatocytes
7
Q
Where does blood from the GI tract go?
A
ALL of it goes to the liver
8
Q
How does the liver prevent you from becoming hyperglycemic?
A
The liver is able to remove glucose from hepatic portal blood (w/ the aid of insulin, and gets stored as glycogen)
9
Q
What is the general function of the liver?
A
Take up nutrients during feeding and release nutrients during fasting
10
Q
How do substances easily get into the blood or liver sinusoids?
A
1. Endothelial layer has fenestrations
2. No basement membrane
11
Q
How does the liver help digest lipids?
A
Hepatocytes secrete bile which emulsifies fat in the intestine
12
Q
Where is bile made?
A
1. It is in the hepatocytes
2. Bile canaliculi run between hepatocytes are are surrounded by tight junctions
13
Q
What is the path of bile?
A
1. It is produced by heptocytes, travels to canaliculi to a branch of the bile duct and then to the duodenum
2. It goes in to opposite direction as the flow of blood
14
Q
Besides bile acids, what else is in bile?
A
1. Cholesterol and other lipids
2. Drugs/Toxins/ Other liver metabolites (excrete substances from the body)
3. Biliruben
15
Q
Where does biliruben come from?
A
1. Macrophages in spleen destroy old/deformed RBC
2. Metabolizes heme
3. Now it is biliruben (yellow pigment)
4. Goes into bile
5. Biliruben is changed to biliverdein (green pigment)
6. Travels into the duodenum
16
Q
What happens to bilirubin in the duodenum?
A
1. Goes to the colon
2. Becomes stercobilin (brown pigment)
17
Q
What happens if bile is prevented from leaving the liver?
A
1. Can't excrete biliruben (jaundice)
2. Pale or grey stool (no brown pigments)
3. Can't excrete bile acids - Fatty Stool
18
Q
Major structures in a hepatocyte
A
Smooth ER - produces cholesterol
Rough ER - makes proteins and albumin
Peroxisomes - metabolize toxins in liver
19
Q
What do kupffer cells do?
A
1. Phagocytize Substances - "liver macrophages"
2. Clear old or malformed erythrocytes
3. Phagocytize bacteria - host defence
*can take over function of spleen*
20
Q
Where do reticular fibers in the liver come from?
A
Stellate or Ito Cells
21
Q
Where do kupffer cells originate?
A
Bone marrow
22
Q
What type of cells make up the gallbladder?
A
Simple columnar epithelium (absorption)
23
Q
What is the gallbladder lined with SCE?
A
Designed to absorb water and concentrate bile