Lecture 10 - Intro to ANS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10 - Intro to ANS Deck (112):
1

Describe the ANS.

Unconscious control
Visceral functions

2

Describe the somatic nervous system.

Conscious control
Movement, posture

3

What are all pre-synaptic terminals composed of? (receptor, NT)

ACh to Nicotinic

4

What are all PNS synapses composed of? (receptor, NT)

ACh to Muscarinic

5

What are all NMJ's composed of? (receptor, NT)

ACh to Nicotinic

6

What are three types of SNS receptors?

M + A/B + D

7

Where are SNS M found? What stimulates them?

Sweat glands, ACh

8

Where are SNS A/B receptors found? What stimulates them?

Cardiac + Smooth Muscle
Gland cells + Nerve terminals
NE

9

Where are SNS D receptors found? What stimulates them?

Dopamine
Renal vascular SM

10

Where do PNS preganglionic fibers originate?

Midbrain + Medulla Oblongata + Sacral area

11

Are preganglionic fibers of PNS short or long?

Long

12

Where do preganglionic fibers from SNS synapse?

Paravertrbral chains

13

Where do SNS preganglionic fibers originate?

Thoracic + Lumbar

14

What is special about the SNS in regards to having the paravertberal chain?

Can coordinate reactions

15

What does SNS NE act on?

Alpha + Beta1 receptors

16

What does the epinephrine from adrenal medulla act on receptor wise?

Alpha + Beta

17

List all the places (we need to know) that ACh is released from.

Pre-ganglionic fibers
Post-ganglionic PNS
SNS to sweat glands
Adrenal medulla innervation
NMJ

18

List all the places (we need to know) that NE is released.

Most port-ganglionic SNS
Adrenal medulla

19

What is acetylcholine made from?

Choline + Acetyl CoA

20

What enzyme makes ACh?

ChAT

21

Describe how cholinergic transmission occurs.

Choline enters cell via CHT (w/ Na)
ChAT makes ACh
VAT takes in ACh into vesicle
Stimulus occurs - vesicle is released
ACh broken down via AChE
Choline take back up into nerve terminal

22

Describe how adrenergic transmission occurs.

Tyrosine enters cell (w/ Na)
Tyrosine hydroxylase makes L-DOPA
L-DOPA becomes Dopamine
VMAT take dopamine into the vesicle
Dopamine becomes NE
Stimulus causes NE release
NE taken back into cell via NET

23

What drug inhibits Tyrosine hydroxylase?

Metyrosine

24

What drug depletes NE from vesicle?

Reserpine

25

What drugs inhibit NET?

Cocaine + Antidepressants

26

What drugs inhibit CHT?

Hemicholiniums

27

What drugs inhibit VAT?

Vesamicol

28

What toxin inhibits ACh release?

Botulism

29

What do amphetamines do to adrenergic transmission?

Reverse transport to increase release

30

What two enzymes metabolize NE?

MAO + COMT

31

What are the four cholinergic receptors?

M1-3 + N

32

Where is M1 found?

Sweat glands + CNS

33

Where is M2 found?

Heart
Smooth muscle
Pre-synaptic nerve terminals

34

Where is M3 found?

Exocrine glands
Smooth muscle
Vascular endothelium

35

Where are N receptors found?

NMJ
Ganglia

36

What receptor does M1 + M3 interact with? What does it do?

Gq
Increase PLC + IP3 + DAG

37

What receptor does M2 interact with? What does it do?

Gi
Inhibit cAMP

38

What kind of receptor are nicotinic receptors?

Na+ channels

39

Where are alpha1 receptors found?

Smooth muscle

40

What receptor type is alpha1 related to? What does it do?

Gq
Increase PLC + IP3 + DAG
Ca2+ increases = cell depolarizes

41

What receptor type is alpha2 related to? What does it do?

Gi
Decrease cAMP

42

Where is alpha2 found?

Pre-synaptic terminal
Smooth muscle

43

What receptor does ALL betas interact with? What do they do?

Gs
Stimulate cAMP

44

Where are beta1 receptors found?

Heart

45

What is the general effect of beta1?

Increase HR + Force of contraction

46

Where are beta2 receptors found?

Bronchioles + Heart + SM in skeletal blood vessels

47

Where are beta3 receptors found?

Fat cells + Bladder

48

What is the general effect of beta3?

Increase lipolysis
Relax bladder

49

How many dopamine receptors are there?

5

50

Where are D1 + D5 receptors found?

Brain + Vascular beds

51

What is the typical response (molecularly) to D1 or D5 stimulus?

Increase cAMP

52

Where are D2-4 found?

Brain and other tissues

53

What is the typical response (molecularly) to D2-4 stimulus?

Decrease cAMP

54

What are the three pre-synaptic regulatory receptors?

Alpha2 + Beta + M2

55

What do pre-synaptic alpha2 receptors inhibit?

NE release

56

What do pre-synaptic beta receptors do?

Increase NE release

57

What do pre-synaptic M2 receptors do?

Inhibit NE release

58

What type of receptor is M2 consider when it is pre-synaptic?

Heteroreceptor

59

What type of receptor is Beta when it is pre-synaptic?

Autoreceptor

60

What molecule takes part in endocytosis of an activated receptor?

B-arrestin

61

What are the two places with NO PNS?

Blood vessels + Sweat glands

62

What are the VERY basic characteristics of PNS function?

rest and digest
discrete innervation
Necessary for life

63

What are the VERY basic characteristics of SNS function?

Fight or flight
Coordinated
Respond to stress

64

With PNS stimulation what happens with heart rate?

slows

65

With PNS stimulation what happens with secretions?

Gastric + Salivation increase

66

With PNS stimulation what happens with GI activity?

Increases

67

With PNS stimulation what happens with GI sphincters?

Relax

68

With PNS stimulation what happens with pupils?

Contract

69

With PNS stimulation what happens with accommodation for eyes?

Near vision

70

With SNS stimulation what happens with heart rate?

increases

71

With SNS stimulation what happens with blood vessels to muscles?

dilate

72

With SNS stimulation what happens with bronchioles?

dilate

73

With SNS stimulation what happens with GI?

Less active, sphincters contract

74

With SNS stimulation what happens with eyes?

Pupils dilate + accommodation for distance

75

With SNS stimulation what happens with metabolism?

Increase lipolysis + blood sugar

76

With SNS stimulation what happens with the kidneys?

Increase renin secretion

77

What 4 things occur in the Heart, BV, and lungs with PNS stimulus?

Bronchoconstriction
Mucus secretion
Decrease heart rate
Decrease atrioventricular conduction

78

What 4 things occur in the Heart, BV, and lungs with SNS stimulus?

Bronchodilation
Increase heart rate
Increase Atrioventicular conduction
contractility

79

What does M2 do in the heart?

Decrease heart rate + conduction

80

What does M3 do in the heart, blood vessels, and lungs?

Bronchoconstriction

81

What does B2 do in the heart, blood vessels, and lungs?

Relax BV to skeletal muscles
relax bronchioles
(small effect on heart rate)

82

What does B1 do in the heart, blood vessels, and lungs?

Increase HR + AV conduction + Contraction

83

What does alpha1 do in the heart, blood vessels, and lungs?

Constrict most other BV in the body

84

Why do you see an increase then a decrease in HR with SNS stimulation?

Baroreceptors keep heart rate in check

85

What do baroreceptors monitor?

MAP

86

Where do baroreceptors send their message?

VMC in medulla

87

Where are baroreceptors located?

Aortic arch + Carotid artery

88

What two things do NE stimulate that cause an increase in BP?

alpha = Vasoconstriction
B1 = Increase HR

89

What changes diastolic pressure?

Vasoconstriction (alpha stimulus)

90

What changes systolic pressure?

Difference between CO + vasoconstriction

91

What are the general PNS effects on the GI tract?

Hydrochloric acid secretion increased
Motility increased
Sphincters relaxed

92

What receptor works on the GI tract via PNS?

M3

93

What are the general effects of SNS on GI tract?

Glycogenolysis
Decreased motility

94

What receptor from SNS is responsible for increased glycogenolysis?

B2

95

What SNS receptor is responsible for relaxing the GI tract?

Alpha2 + Beta2

96

What are the PNS effects on the Gentiourinary tract?

Urination = contract bladder + relax sphincters
Erection

97

What does B1 do in the gentiourinary tract?

Increase renin

98

What does B2 do in the gentiourinary tract?

Relax bladder wall + uterus

99

What does A2 do in the gentiourinary tract?

Contract sphincters - Ejaculation

100

What are the PNS effects in the eyes?

Miosis
Accommodation
Lacrimation
Mucus secretion
Salivation

101

What are the SNS effects in the eyes?

Mydriasis
Vasoconstriction
Salivation

102

What receptors acts in the eyes for the SNS?

Alpha

103

Is PNS vision near or far?

Near

104

What muscle controls accommodation?

Ciliary muscle

105

What is the shape of the lens for near vision?

Rounded

106

What receptors constrict the ciliary muscle?

M

107

Which pupil muscle is SNS?

Radial muscle

108

What pupil muscle is PNS?

Circular muscle

109

What receptor is on the circular muscle?

M3

110

What receptor is on the radial muscle?

Alpha1

111

What are the muscarinic effects on the eye?

Iris circular muscle = Constriction
Ciliary muscle = Accomodation (near)
Decrease pressure = outflow of aqueous humor

112

What are the adrenergic effects on the eye?

Radial muscle = Dilation
without cycloplegia - no effect on ciliary muscle
Decrease intraocular pressure (alpha)
Increase intraocular pressure (beta)