Lecture 17/18 - GI medications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 17/18 - GI medications Deck (83)
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1

What is responsible for protecting the stomach from acidic conditions?

Bicarbonate + Mucous

2

When do ulcers occur, most basic mechanism?

Acid > Protective layer

3

What can cause ulcers?

Drugs = NSAIDs + Corticosteroids
H.pylori
Mast cell tumors
GI diseases
Long interavals of no food in horses

4

What is the most basic mechaism by which ulcers are healed?

decrease acid

5

What are common signs of ulcers in dogs?

Vomiting +/- blood
Weight loss + Anaemia
Black tarry stool

6

What are common signs of ulcers in cats?

Vomiting +/- blood
Anemia + Weight loss + loss of appetite
Abdominal pain
Tarry stool

7

What is EGUS?

Equine gastric ulcer syndrome

8

What type of horse is most prone to ulcerations?

Racing horses (~60%)

9

What is the most basic mechanism by which horses get ulcers?

Always producing acid, so must be able to eat at all times to prevent erosion of stomach lining

10

What are signs that a horse may have a stomach ulceration?

Poor appetite + Lethargy + Weight loss + Poor performance + Attitude

11

What are the two parts of a horses stomach?

Non-glandular + Glandular

12

What is ESGUS?

Non-glandular

13

What is EGGUS?

Glandular

14

What portion of the stomach is most prone to ulcerations?

Non-glandular

15

What is an important mechanism by which H+ is taken into the parietal cell?

Histamine from ECL cell stimulates H2

16

What is the important protective portion of the molecular cascade of parietal cells?

PGE2 + PGI2 --> stimulates EP3

17

What does EP3 do? (two different cells)

Superficial epi cell = mucous + bicarb
Parietal cell = prevents H+ secretion

18

What inhibits PG's?

NSAIDs

19

What do antacids block?

H+ directly

20

What do proton pump inhibitors inhibit?

H/K ATPase

21

What is the pH at the mucous layer?

7

22

What is the pH in the gastric lumen?

2

23

What does Mg do in the stomach?

Binds H+
Not absorbed
Also acts as a laxative

24

What does Al do in the stomach?

Binds H+
Not absorbed
Causes constipation
Combine with Mg

25

What two transmitters increase acid production?

M1/M3 = ACh
H2 = Histamine

26

What are the three elements used in antacids?

Aluminum + Magnesium + Calcium

27

What is the product of antacids with H+?

Water + Neutral salt

28

When should antacids not be used? Why?

Renal failure
Mg will accumulate = CNS toxicity

29

What side effect do you see with Calcium as an antacid?

Creates CO2 = Burping

30

When should antacids be used, what types of Gi disorders?

Acidity in mild gastric disease
Don't work with ulcerations