Lecture 29 - Anticoagulants + Hemostatic Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 29 - Anticoagulants + Hemostatic Deck (92)
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1

What are examples of hypercoaguable states?

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
IMHA
Cushing's disease
Acute phase inflammation
Protein-losing nephropathy

2

What are examples of a hypocoaguable state?

post-surgery
Genetic bleeding disorders
Liver failure

3

What are the three necessary components of a functional clotting system?

Production of clotting factors
Functional platelets
Break down of clots

4

What is the breaking down of blood clots called

Firbinolysis

5

What interacts with blotting factors to induce the coagulation cascade?

Platelets

6

What are the factors within the intrinsic pathway?

12 - 11 - 9 - 8

7

What are the factors within the extrinsic pathway?

Tissue factor - 7

8

Where are the extrinsic molecules located?

Wall of the blood vessel

9

What tests the extrinsic pathway?

PT

10

What tests the intrinstic pathway?

aPTT

11

What is part of the common pathway?

Factor 10
2 - 1

12

What is factor 2 known as?

Thrombin

13

What is factor I known as?

Fibrinogen

14

What does fibrinogen do?

Polymerizes into a clot

15

What are the factors that depend on Vitamin K?

2 - 7 - 9 - 10

16

How does vitamin K activate certain Factors in the coag pathway?

Reduced --> Oxidized state
with y-glutamyl carboxylase

17

What recycles y-glutamyl carboxylase back to reduced form?

Vitamin K epoxide reductase

18

What is warfarin used in, in an extra-label use manner?

Food animals + Horses

19

how is warfarin distributed throughout the body?

Via plasma protein

20

What are the differences that you see in 1/2 life of warfarin?

extremely long in cats

21

How is warfarin metabolized?

Hepatic

22

How is warfarin excreted?

Urine + Feces

23

Why is the use of warfarin complicated?

Very small theraputic index

24

What is seen with warfarin toxicity?

Fatal hemorrhade w/ anemia
Hematomas all over
Congenital malformation in dogs + cats

25

What are therapeutic complications seen with warfarin use?

Dogs tolerant within a month
Need frequent testing of PT
Drug interactions

26

When do you see warfarin toxicity?

Antirodenticides
Moldy sweet clover + Sweet vernal hay

27

What is the biggest problem when it comes to warfarin toxicity in AZ?

Sweet clover

28

Where does warfarin affect the coag pathway?

Vit. K epoxide reductase

29

Why does giving Vitamin K in Warfarin toxicity help the animal?

Concentration of Vitamin K now high enough it can bypass the reductase and use DL-diaphorase instead

30

When, besides warfarin toxicity, is Vitamin K used for treatment?

Chronic sulfonamide treatment of birds for coccidiosis
Congenital, vit. K dependent coagulopathy
Porcine hemorrhagic syndrome