Flashcards in Lecture 8 - Drugs in food animals Deck (29)
What is prophylaxis?
Disease prevention generally
What is metaphylaxis?
Disease prevention in a herd
Why is it important to know what we are giving to our food animals?
Drugs + metabolites are in turn being distributed to our clients within the meats. Also introduced into our environment
What broad-spectrum AB can never be given to food animals?
Where can Chloraphenicol travel in the body?
Placenta + BBB
Why cant Chloramphenicol be given to food animals?
Causes aplastic anemia in humans
What AB cannot be given to lactating cattle?
Why can't Baytril be given to lactating cattle?
Kills the bacteria that is responsible for cheese, yogurt, etc
What are the risks associated with giving drugs to food animals?
Health + Economic
What is GRAS?
Generally regarded as safe
List of drugs that can be given to animals without regulation
What does the NPR do? What does it stand for?
National residue program
Testing and enforcement of laws enacted by the government inregards to food animals
What is a food animal?
Any animal where tissue or any product has the POTENTIAL to enter the food chain
What are the major food animals?
Cattle + Swine + Chicken + Turkeys
What are the minor food animals?
Why is it important to know what the minor vs major food species are?
Some medications are allowed in one but not the other
What is a food animal residue?
Drug OR metabolite that can be defined in a target tissue, inorder to determine whether it is above the tolerance level
What does the tolerance level of a drug or metabolite tell you?
Whether the animal is safe for consumption or not
What are target tissues?
Edible tissues, and is a good representation of the conditions of other edible meats not tested
What are the two most common tissues tested?
Liver + Kidney
Why are the kidney and liver the most common target tissues?
This is where metabolism and elimination occur, it will most likely be at its highest concentration here
What is tolerance?
Concentration of drug OR metabolite that is measured in the target tissue, below the determined level considered safe for human consumption
What are the two exceptions to tolerance level tests?
Eggs + Milk
What are the components to the evaluation part of determining "safe for consumption"?
Potential for AB resistance
What must be determined during the studies for "safe for consumption"?
Acceptable Daily intake of drug/metabolite in human diet
What is assumed when determine the acceptable daily intake of the drug/metabolite?
High levels on consumption
What is the withdrawl time for drugs in food animals?
Time need for drug to be below tolerance level in 99% of the population with 95% confidence
What components of a drug in food animals does the CVM regulate?
Route of entry
Interval of Administration
What are the two major drug classes of concerns in food animals?
AB's + -cides