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Flashcards in Lecture 14 Deck (73)
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31

Optical communication relies on?

Specializations of the sender
• Body structures modified to generate or reflect light for the purpose of communication
• Specializations of the receiver
• Visual system is designed to pick up electromagnetic radiation
• Adaptation to the channel • Properties of the signal are selected to maximize the likelihood of
unambiguous reception

32

For a reflecting surface to appear colored it must selectively...?

reflect certain wavelengths of light more than others
• Reflecting all wavelengths equally = white
• Absorbing all wavelengths equally = black

33

Curves with _____ peak over a _______ wavelength range are highly saturated.

high, narrow
broader curves are less saturated

34

Area under the curve is a measure of what?

brightness

35

_______ animals generally perceive a wider range of colors.

Diurnal

36

Color is produced through 3 different mechanisms:

• Pigments
• Thin-layer interference
• Scattering

37

What are pigments?

chemical compounds whose molecules absorb certain
wavelengths of light and transmit the remaining wavelengths

38

Long-pass filters allow only _______ wavelengths to pass

longer

39

How is the color red produced? Yellow?

Red is produced by allowing all wavelengths above 600 nm to pass
• Yellow is produced by allowing all wavelengths above 500 nm to pass

40

_______ ______ filters allow only short wavelengths to pass.

Short pass

41

_________ only allow wavelengths below 450 nm to pass.

Violet

42

What does color combination result in? Give an example.

additive color mixing
• Purple is not a spectral color but results form filters that block mid-range wavelengths (green) and allow red (long) and blue (short) wavelengths to pass

43

What are the 3 types of pigments?

Carotenoids – produced by plants and acquired by eating plants or by eating
something that has eaten plants
• Typically produce red, orange, yellow
• Porphyrins – modified amino acids all fluoresce under ultraviolet light
• Typically produce pink, browns, reds, and greens
• Melanin – tiny granules of color found in feathers and skin; provide
structural support as well as coloring
• Typically produce darkest black, reddish browns, pale yellow

44

What are conjugated double bonds?

Pigments are organic compounds that contain long chains of conjugated double bonds. They are carbon atoms joined by alternating single and double bonds.

45

What is carotene?

18-carbon chain that absorbs longer wavelength and transmits green, yellow,
and red to appear yellow or orange
Carotenoids bound to proteins absorb green but
transmit violet and red – appear purple

46

What are Pterins?

nitrogenous rings that
produce white, yellow and red
colors often found in butterfly
wings

47

What is a Quinone?

Represent a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds

48

What is a Verdins?

produce blue-green
color often found in bird’s eggs

49

What are porphyrins?

verdin molecule with
the ends connected into a ring around
a central metal ion; color is
dependent on the type of metal

50

Most animals place _____ in the center.

iron.
Hemoglobin: red (chicken comb)

51

Plants place _________ in the center.

magnesium
chlorophyll: green

52

Turacos place _______ in the center

copper

53

Describe melanin?

dark-colored pigments found in a wide
variety of vertebrates, invertebrates, and
plants
• Large protein molecule that absorbs most
or all visible wavelengths to produce
brown or black

54

Define guanine?

forms microcrystalline deposits (platelets) that reflect
all wavelengths
• Dense packing of guanine crystals causes specular reflectance
• Silvery appearance of fish scales

55

What must pigments be coupled with?

Reflective structures

56

Where are pigments located.

outer epidermal or derman llayers of skin.

57

What are chromatosomes?

small granules or packets that contain
pigments; found in chromatophores

58

What are chromatophores?

pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians

59

What happens to light when it travels through pigment?

undergoes the first round of absorption/reflection
• Light waves that are reflected back out will undergo a second
round of absorption/reflection through the pigments

60

What are Iridosomes?

contain guanine platelets that reflect all wavelengths
of light (act like a mirror)