Lecture 18- Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 18- Endocrine System Deck (61)
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31

What signals the release of cortisol?

ACTH

32

What effect does cortisol have on the hypothalamus?

negative feedback

33

What effects does cortisol have on the body?

- immunosuppressive
- anti- inflammatory

34

What is released in the zona reticularis?

androgens- lipid soluble steroids, wide capillaries or sinusoids

35

What induces the release of androgens from the adrenal gland?

ACTH

36

Where are chromaffin cells?

adrenal medulla, derived from the neural crest

37

What effect does the sympathetic pre-ganglionic neuron have on the adrenal medulla?

release epinephrine

38

If the sympathetic pre-ganglionic synapses on a post ganglionic neuron, what will be secreted?

norepinephrine

39

What are the main parts of the thyroid?

- capsule
- septa
- thyroid follicles

40

What are the follicular cells?

Simple epithelium, cuboidal or columnar

41

What is the colloid filled lumen?

thyroglobulin

42

What is stored in the C cells?

Calcitonin

43

If the follicular cells are inactive (No TSH) they are more?

squamous

44

If the follicular cells are active, they are...

more cuboidal or columnar, thyroid hormone

45

What are three effects of thyroid hormone?

- increase basal metabolic rate
- increase lipid metabolism
- increase in carbohydrate metabolism

46

Which cell has secretory granules?

C cells

47

What effect does the caclitonin from the secretory granules have on the body?

inhibit osteoclasts

48

What does thyroglobulin help store?

Iodine in T3 and T4

49

What stimulates the production and release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland?

TSH from anterior pituitary

50

What shuts off TSH release from the pituitary?

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

51

What shuts off TSH release from the pituitary?

Thyroid Hormone, negative feedback

52

What would the cells look like if a test revealed elevated serum TSH levels?

Follicular cell hyperplasia but with little colloid

53

What cells are found in the parathyroid gland?

- chief cells
- oxyphil cells

54

What do chief cells secrete?

Parathyroid hormone, purple nuclei with pale but acidophilic cytoplasm

55

Low blood calcium levels stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion. How does PTH raise blood Ca++ levels?

Increases Ca++ reabsorption in the kidney tubule

56

What does PTH do in the kidney?

increases the synthesis of 1-ahydroxylage in the PCT of the kidney. Activates Vitamin D to enable Ca++ absorption from the gut

57

What does the pineal gland secrete?

melatonin

58

What does melatonin do?

regulates circadian rhythm, darkness promotes the release of melatonin

59

What is a corpora arenacea?

brain sand, Ca, Mg salts.

60

What are the other cells found in the pineal gland?

- pinealocytes
- astrocytes
- corpora arenacea
- septa