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Year 2 Hematology > Malaria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Malaria Deck (42)
1

what are the five species of plasmodium that cause malaria in humans?

1. falciparum
2. vivax
3. malariae
4. ovale
5. knowlesi

2

what is the distribution of p. falciparum?

world wide

3

what is the distribution of p. vivax?

mostly in Asia, some in sub-Saharan Africa

4

what is the distribution of p. malariae?

world wide

5

what is the distribution of p. ovale?

Africa, parts of Asia, Pacific Islands

6

what is the distribution of p. knowlesi?

Malaysia, parts of Southeast Asia

7

most of the cases of malaria are caused by what species of plasmodium?

falciparum and vivax

8

which two species of plasmodium can take on a dormant form in the liver? what is the name of this form?

1. vivax and ovale
2. hypnozoite

9

what is the clinical feature of malaria?

malarial paroxysm

10

malarial paroxysm is associated with which phase of the plasmodium life cycle?

synchronous release of merozoites and lysis of RBCs

11

what are the stages of malarial paroxysm? how long is each phase?

1. cold - 15-60 minutes
2. hot - 2-6 hours
3. sweat - 8-12 hours

12

what is the duration and pattern of paroxysm for p. vivax and ovale?

every 48 hours (tertian)

13

what is the duration and pattern of paroxysm for p. malariae?

every 72 hours (quartan)

14

what is the duration and pattern of paroxysm for p. falciparum?

roughly every 48 hours

15

what is the duration and pattern of paroxysm for p. knowlesi?

every 24 hours

16

the most severe form of malaria is caused by what species? why?

1. falciparum
2. highest parasitemia - more than 20% of circulating RBCs can become infected

17

what is the most common species of plasmodium?

falciparum

18

what is the most severe complication of of falciparum malaria?

cerebral malaria

19

what is the incubation period for falciparum?

1-2 weeks

20

what is the incubation period for vivax and ovale?

2-3 weeks

21

what is the most severe complication for vivax and ovale?

splenic rupture

22

what is the incubation period for malariae?

3-6 weeks

23

symptomatic recrudescence occurs in which species of plasmodium?

malariae

24

what are the three mechanisms of malarial anemia?

1. RBC rupture
2. suppression of erythropoiesis by cytokines
3. RBC destructionby spleen

25

falciparum and knowlesi infect what type of RBC?

any type, old or young

26

vivax and ovale infect which type of RBC?

only reticulocytes

vivax - must have Duffy blood group determinants
ovale - Duffy negative or positive

27

malariae infects which type of RBC?

old RBCs

28

what are the secondary symptoms of malaria?

1. hypoglycemia / lactic acidosis - CNS depression
2. microvascular sequestration - cerebral malaria

29

what are the hallmark features of falciparum on PBS?

1. purple bananas!! (gametocytes)
2. multiple ring forms

30

what are the hallmark features of vivax and ovale on PBS?

1. pale bloated RBCs
2. Schuffner dots

31

what are the hallmark features of p. malariae on PBS?

band forms

32

babesiosis is transmitted by what vector?

tick

33

which populations are most vulnerable to babesiosis infection?

elderly, asplenic, immunosuppressed

34

what is the hallmark sign of babesiosis on PBS?

maltese cross

35

what is the treatment for babesiosis?

quinine and clindamycin

36

most of the malaria drugs target what form of the parasite?

asexual blood forms

37

where is the only place where chloroquine can responsibly be prescribed for malaria?

west of the Panama Canal - Mexico, Haiti, Dominican Republic

38

what is the major adverse effect of quinine?

hypoglycemia - induces insulin secretion

39

what drug is used in areas that are resistant to chloroquine?

mefloquine

40

which drug kills the hypnozoite forms of plasmodium?

primaquine

41

what is the major toxicity for primaquine?

RBC lysis in persons with G6PD deficiency

42

radical cure is necessary for following clinical cure of what species of plasmodium?

vivax and ovale