Multiple myeloma Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Hematology > Multiple myeloma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Multiple myeloma Deck (24)
1

what is the abnormal protein produced in multiple myeloma?

M protein

2

what is the most common heavy chain proliferation in multiple myeloma?

IgG

3

what are the symptoms of myeloma?

1. lytic bone lesions
2. numbness / tingling in lower back / legs

4

what test is required to view the lytic bone lesions of multiple myeloma?

bone survey

5

what are the criteria for multiple myeloma diagnosis?

1. serum / urine monoclonal protein
2. clonal plasma cells in bone marrow
3. end organ damage

6

how is smoldering myeloma different from multiple myeloma?

no end organ damage

7

how is smoldering myeloma different from MGUS?

for smoldering serum monoclonal protein is greater than 3 g/dL and 10-60% bone marrow clonal plasma cells

8

what is the mainstay therapy for myelomas?

steroids

9

what is the overall goal of stem cell transplant therapy?

remission

10

where are plasmacytomas located?

isolated myeloma mass in bone, most commonly humerus

11

what is the most common site for extramedullary plasmacytoma?

upper respiratory tract

12

what are the diagnostic criteria for plasmacytoma?

1. biopsy proven solitary lesion of bone or soft tissue with evidence of clonal plasma cells
2. bone survey
3. absence of end organ damage

13

what is the treatment for plasmacytoma?

1. radiation for bone or soft tissue
2. surgery and/or radiation for extramedullary

14

definition: amyloidosis

protein conformation disorder associated with clonal plasma cell dyscrasia

15

what is the clinical feature of amyloidosis?

extracellular deposition of light chain fragments in an abnormal insoluble fibril form

16

what % of patients with myeloma have concurrent amyloidosis?

10%

17

what is the diagnosis for amyloidosis?

definitive - congo red stain

18

what are the screening tests for amyloidosis?

1. electrophoresis and urine IF
2. serum free light chains

19

what is the most important factor for prognosis of amyloidosis?

cardiac involvement

20

what is the treatment goal for amyloidosis?

retardation of further damage

21

what are the clinical features of waldenstroms macroglobulinemia?

1. excess IgM in blood
2. lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma in marrow

22

what is the main symptom associated with waldenstroms macroglobulinemia?

hyperviscosity

23

what is the diagnosis for waldenstroms?

1. IgM monoclonal gammopathy (any size)
2. over 10% monoclonal lymphocytes and plasma cell differentiation in bone marrow

24

what are the treatments for symptomatic waldenstroms?

chemo, plasmapheresis