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Flashcards in Movement upper limb Deck (74):
1

Meromelia

Partial absence of a limb

2

PHocomelia

Hand attached to shoulder (thalidomide)

3

Syndactyly

Fused digits

4

Polydactyly

Extra digits

5

Ectrodactyly

Lobster claw

6

Borders of quadrangular space

Lat- humerus
Med-long head triceps brachii
Sup-teres minor
Inf- teres major

7

What secretes Fgf10? What does it do?

Lateral plate mesoderm, thickens ectoderm- apical ectodermal ridge which secretes Fgf4 and 8 - progress zone, proximodistal growth

8

What controls dorsoventral development of limbs?

Wnt7 (dorsal) and Engrailed-1 (ventral, inhibits wnt7)
Secreted by ectoderm

9

What controls craniocaudal development of limb?

Shh secreted by caudal zone of polarising activity, diffuses in cranial direction

10

Extensors of the upper limb come from the anterior or posterior condensation, which comes from the dorsal epimere or the ventral hypomere?

Posterior condensation from the ventral hypomere

11

Pectoral girdle = ?+?

Scapula and clavicle

12

Nerve supply to levator scapulae, rhomboid maj and min?

Dorsal scapular nerve

13

Deltoid innervation

Axillary

14

Which shoulder muscles are not part of the rotator cuff

Deltoid and teres major

15

Supraspinatus and infraspinatus nerve supply

Supra-scapular nerve

16

Teres minor innervation

Axillary

17

Teres major innervation

Lower sub-scapular

18

Subscapularis innervation

Upper and lower sub-scapular

19

What runs in the quadrangular space

Axillary nerve
Post circumflex humeral artery

20

Clavipectoral/deltopectoral triangle- borders and contents

Deltoid, pec maj and clavicle
Cephalic vein

21

Innervation of pec maj

Medial and lateral pectoral nerves

22

Innervation of pec min

medial pectoral nerve

23

Innervation of serratus anterior

long thoracic

24

Innervation of subclavius

nerve to subclavius

25

Damage to long thoracic nerve results in what sign?

Winged scapula

26

Axilla borders

Med- upper thoracic wall, serr ant
Lateral- intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Anterior- pect maj and min, subclavius, clavipectoral fascia
Posterior- subscapularis, teres major, latissimus dorsi, long head triceps brachii

27

Contents of the neurovascular bundle that passes through the axilla?

Brachial plexus, axillary artery and vein, lymph

28

Neve supply to index finger palmar side

Median

29

Nerve supply to dorsum of hand caudal side

ulnar

30

What does the median cubital vein connect?

Basilic and cephalic veins

31

From where does the cephalic vein arise?

Dorsal veins of the hand

32

What does the basilic vein become in the arm when it pierces the deep fascia?

Axillary vein

33

Nerve to anterior compartment of arm

Musculocutaneous

34

Artery to anterior compartment of arm

Brachial

35

Posterior compartment of arm contents?

Triceps brachii

36

Triceps nerve supply

Radial

37

Triceps artery

Deep brachial

38

What structures run in the spiral groove of the humerus? Is this superior or inferior to teres major

Radial nerve and deep brachial artery
Inferior

39

Dislocation of the lunate bone may lead to compression of which nerve?

Median

40

Contents of cubital fossa

Biceps brachii tendon
Brachial artery
Median nerve

41

Flexor compartment is innervated by which nerve? Except?

Median, except flexor carpi ulnaris and the medial half of flexor digitorum profundus which are innervated by the ulnar nerve

42

What structures pass through the carpal tunnel?

Median nerve
Tendons of :
-flexor pollicis longus
-flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus

43

Extensor compartment of forearm is innervated by

Radial nerve

44

Hypothenar eminence nerve

Deep branch ulnar

45

Lumbricals nerve?

Medial 2 - deep ulnar
Lateral 2 - median digital branches

46

Interossei nerves

deep ulnar

47

Thenar eminence nerves

Median

48

Cubital fossa borders

Lat- brachioradialis
Med- pronator teres

49

Borders of anatomical snuff box

Ant- abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis
Post- extensor pollicis longus

50

Which direction are most elbow dislocations?

Posterior

51

Elbow dislocation associated nerve injury?

Ulnar

52

Fracture of surgical neck of humerus injures which nerve?

Axillary

53

Fracture of humeral shaft injures which nerve

Radial (spiral groove. Wrist drop)

54

Supracondylar fracture of humerus injury to what?

Median nerve and brachial artery

55

Which carpal bone is most commonly dislocated?

Lunate

56

Ulnar nerve and artery run in what in the wrist?

Guyon's canal

57

Ulnar nerve damage = what sign?

Ulnar claw

58

Colles fracture is where and results in what appearance of the wrist?

Distal radius
Dinner fork appearance

59

Most shoulder dislocations are in which direction?

Inferior

60

Shoulder is which dermatome?

C4

61

Damage to C5 and C6 is which palsy? What sign? How may it occur

Erb's
Waiter's tip
Stretching neck when baby delivered, or fall from a height onto neck

62

Damage to C8 T1 is which palsy?
What sign?

Klumpke's
Claw hand as intrinsic hand muscles are paralysed
Pulling arm a lot

63

Klumpke's palsy plus elbow pain=?

Cubital fossa syndrome

64

Wrist drop is a sign of?

Radial nerve palsy (injury in spiral groove)

65

Hand of benediction a sign of?

Median nerve injury at elbow

66

Difference between HoB and ulnar claw?

HoB only when try to make fist (can't flex digits 1-3- median nerve) but ulnar claw = can't flex median lumbricals (ulnar nerve)

67

Where are the trunks of the brachial plexus located?

Neck

68

Where are the cords of the brachial plexus located?

axilla

69

Where are the divisions of the brachial plexus located?

Clavicle

70

Root values of thoracodorsal nerve

C6-C8 (post)

71

Root values of Median nerve

C6-T1 (ant)

72

Root values of Axillary nerve

C5,C6 (posterior division)

73

Root values of long thoracic nerve

C5,C6,C7

74

Root values of medial pectoral

C8, T1