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Flashcards in More CP Deck (92)
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1

What is haematocrit?

Vol % rbcs in blood

2

Is haematocrit higher or lower in children?

Higher

3

Zeta + epsilon = what sort of Hb?

Hb Gower-1

4

Zeta + gamma =?

Hb Portland

5

Alpha + epsilon

Hb gower-2

6

Hb gower 1 is ?

Zeta + epsilon

7

Hb Portland is ?

Zeta + gamma

8

Hb gower 2 is ?

Alpha + epsilon

9

When are Hbs gower1, portland and gower 2 present?

4-14 weeks gestation

10

When does HbF become present?

more than 14 weeks gestation

11

Difference in WBCs in children?

More lymphocytes

12

Which Ig crosses the placenta?

IgG

13

Which Igs in breast milk?

All

14

When do babies start producing their own antibodies?

2-3 months

15

When can babies have their own satisfactory immune responses?

6 months

16

When do platelets reach adult numbers?

18 weeks gestation

17

What are 2 features of gestational platelets?

Larger initially but reduce to adult size by birth
Hyperresponsive to vWF

18

Which clotting factors are normal at birth? What are the rest of them like?

Fibrinogen, FV, VIII, XIII
Rest are reduced

19

When do haemostatic parameters reach adult values?

6 months

20

What is vitamin k dependent other than factors 10, 7, 9, 2?

Proteins S and C

21

What does routine neonatal vit k injections prevent?

Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn

22

What are 5 features of neonatal haemostasis?

Pro-coagulant proteins reduced (e.g. all the other factors)
Reduced conc. coagulation inhibitors
unique forms fibrinogen, plasminogen
Raised D dimers and vWF
Platelet aggregation differs

23

What is acute leukaemia?

Accumulation of early myeloid or lymphoid precursors in BM, blood and other tissues

24

What are the two main subgroups of acute leukaemia

Acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

25

How does acute leukaemia present?

Anaemia
Infection
Easy bruising or haemorrhage
Possibly organ infiltration by the leukaemia cells

26

FAB classification of leukaemia is ?

Morphological

27

WHO classification of leukaemia is ?

Risk adapted- takes into account prognosis

28

6 poor prognostic factors in ALL?

Age
High wcc
Male
Cytogenetic abnormalities (some)
Poor response to Rx
T cell -ALL and null-ALL

29

2 tests for diagnosis?

MABs
Fluorescence activated cell sorting

30

Treatment for acute leukaemia that is shared with ALL and AML

Induction therapy to obtain remission
Consolidation cheomtherapy
Possible BM transplant