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1

Ach receptor blocked by autoantibodies resulting in weak , but not atrophied, muscles

Myaesthenia gravis

2

Pernicious anaemia is lack of absorption of what? Why?

B12 due to lack of intrinsic factor

3

what does ANCA stand for?

anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

4

3 forms ANCA vasculitis

Microscopy polynagitis
Granulomatosis with polyangitis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis

5

All forms of ANCA vasculitis have what? Some have what?

All- polyangitis
Some- granulomatosis

6

ANA is positive in what type of raynauds?

Secondary

7

Skin fibrosis and tightening in fingers and face, finger ulcers, lung fibrosis=? What antibody?

Scleroderma
ANA

8

What is a positive predictive value?

Proportion of people with a positive test who have the target disorder (true positive/all positives)

9

Type II hypersensitivity reaction called what? Which antibodies? Example?

Cytotoxic
IgM and IgG
Rh incompatibility

10

Type III hypersensitivity reaction called what? Which antibodies? Example?

Immune complex
IgG/M (+ antigen = complex)
SLE
Serum sickness

11

Type IV hypersensitivity reaction called? Mediated by what? Example?

Delayed
T cells
Contact dermatitis

12

In a type I hypersensitivity reaction, Th2 cells secrete what, and what stimulates them to do so?

APCs stimulate them (using the allergen)
to secrete IL4 to B cells
and
IL-3,5,GM-CSF to eosinophils

13

In a type I hypersensitivity reaction, B cells, having been activated by IL-4, do what?

Produce IgE which degranulates mast cells to stimulate the initial and late responses.
Also releases IL3 and IL5 to stimulate eosinophils

14

In a type I hypersensitivity reaction, eosinophils, having been activated by IL3,5,GM-CSF, do what?

Degranulate and activate the late phase response.

15

T cell deficient patients present with what? How to treat?

Opportunistic infection
Stem cell transplant, somatic gene therapy

16

B cell deficient patients present with what? Treatment?

Recurrent pyogenic bacterial infection
Antibiotics then IV IgG

17

X linked agammaglobulinaemia is a type of?

B cell deficiency

18

Phagocyte deficient patients present with what?

Recurrent, prolonged infections that respond poorly to Abx.
Staphylococcal
Skin and mucous membranes
Supporative lymphadenopathy

19

C1,2,4 deficient patients present with what?

Immune complex symptoms e.g malar rash, vasculitis

20

C3 deficient patients present with what?

Increased susceptibility to bacterial infection- pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis

21

C5-8 deficient patients present with what?

Recurrent neisserial infection (meningococcal meningitis)

22

Immune stimulants other than immunisation?

alpha, beta, gamma interferons
IL-2
G/GM-CSF

23

3 classes of immune suppressant

Corticosteroids
Lymphocyte targeting
DMARDs

24

4 lymphocyte targeting therapies

Antimetabolites
Calcineurin inhibitors
M-TOR inhibitors
IL-2 receptor MABs

25

What are the classical HLA antigens? What region codes for them?

A, B, C
Class I region

26

Class II region encodes which HLAs?

HLA-DR, DQ, DP

27

Class III region encodes which MHCs?

HSP70, TNF, C4a, C4b, C2, BF, CYP21

28

Where are all of the classical HLAs found?

All nucleated cells

29

What sort of expression do MHC genes have?

Codominant

30

3 types of recognition of the foreign body in transplantation?

Direct (T cells bind directly to graft)
Indirect (graft peptides)
Semi-direct (in lymph nodes)