Flashcards in Revision Deck (275)
Ach receptor blocked by autoantibodies resulting in weak , but not atrophied, muscles
Pernicious anaemia is lack of absorption of what? Why?
B12 due to lack of intrinsic factor
what does ANCA stand for?
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies
3 forms ANCA vasculitis
Granulomatosis with polyangitis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis
All forms of ANCA vasculitis have what? Some have what?
ANA is positive in what type of raynauds?
Skin fibrosis and tightening in fingers and face, finger ulcers, lung fibrosis=? What antibody?
What is a positive predictive value?
Proportion of people with a positive test who have the target disorder (true positive/all positives)
Type II hypersensitivity reaction called what? Which antibodies? Example?
IgM and IgG
Type III hypersensitivity reaction called what? Which antibodies? Example?
IgG/M (+ antigen = complex)
Type IV hypersensitivity reaction called? Mediated by what? Example?
In a type I hypersensitivity reaction, Th2 cells secrete what, and what stimulates them to do so?
APCs stimulate them (using the allergen)
to secrete IL4 to B cells
IL-3,5,GM-CSF to eosinophils
In a type I hypersensitivity reaction, B cells, having been activated by IL-4, do what?
Produce IgE which degranulates mast cells to stimulate the initial and late responses.
Also releases IL3 and IL5 to stimulate eosinophils
In a type I hypersensitivity reaction, eosinophils, having been activated by IL3,5,GM-CSF, do what?
Degranulate and activate the late phase response.
T cell deficient patients present with what? How to treat?
Stem cell transplant, somatic gene therapy
B cell deficient patients present with what? Treatment?
Recurrent pyogenic bacterial infection
Antibiotics then IV IgG
X linked agammaglobulinaemia is a type of?
B cell deficiency
Phagocyte deficient patients present with what?
Recurrent, prolonged infections that respond poorly to Abx.
Skin and mucous membranes
C1,2,4 deficient patients present with what?
Immune complex symptoms e.g malar rash, vasculitis
C3 deficient patients present with what?
Increased susceptibility to bacterial infection- pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis
C5-8 deficient patients present with what?
Recurrent neisserial infection (meningococcal meningitis)
Immune stimulants other than immunisation?
alpha, beta, gamma interferons
3 classes of immune suppressant
4 lymphocyte targeting therapies
IL-2 receptor MABs
What are the classical HLA antigens? What region codes for them?
A, B, C
Class I region
Class II region encodes which HLAs?
HLA-DR, DQ, DP
Class III region encodes which MHCs?
HSP70, TNF, C4a, C4b, C2, BF, CYP21
Where are all of the classical HLAs found?
All nucleated cells
What sort of expression do MHC genes have?