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Flashcards in Heart failure and congenital Deck (35):
1

What 3 things and 2 principles can lead to left heart failure?

HTN
Valve disfunction
MI
Principles- pressure and volume overload.

2

2 causes of RHF?

LHF
Cor pulmonale

3

Difference between L and R HF?

Left- low output to body
Right- blood not removed from veins

4

3 symptoms LHF

Fluid retention
Stupor
Pulmonary oedema

5

3 symptoms RHF

Liver and spleen congestion/hypertrophy
Pleural/pericardial effusion
Peripheral oedema

6

How does the heart muscle end up in heart failure?

Hypertrophied and dilated

7

2 types stenosis

Aortic and mitral

8

Aortic stenosis results in

LV hypertrophy

9

Mitral stenosis results in (5)

pancarditis
inflammation
aschoff bodies
vegetations
thickened valve

10

2 causes of mitral stenosis

Rheumatic HD- group A strep
Mitral annular calcification

11

2 types regurg

Aortic and mitral

12

4 causes aortic regurg

rheumatic
infection
marfan syndrome
syphilis

13

4 causes mitral regurg

infection
fen-phen
mitral annular calcification
mitral valve prolapse

14

What is mitral valve prolapse?

Myxomatous degeneration of the valve

15

3 features of mitral valve prolapse

Often asymptomatic
Mild systolic click
Chest pain/dyspnoea

16

3 rare complications of mitral valve prolapse

Infective endocarditis
Arrythmias
Death

17

L to R shunts symptoms

Pulmonary hypertension
NO cyanosis

18

4 diseases with L to R shunt

ASD
VSD
PDA
AVSD

19

3 types atrial septal defect

Secundum (most common- defective fossa ovalis)
Primum
Sinus venosus

20

Most common heart defect?

VSD

21

Large VSD= ?

pulmonary hypertension

22

4 things patent ductus arteriosus is associated with

VSD
Coarctation aorta
Pulmonary stenosis
Aortic stenosis

23

When might the shunt switch to R to L in PDA?

when pulmonary HTN reaches systemic levels

24

When would it be good to keep the ductus arteriosus patent?

TRansposition of great vessels

25

What is AVSD assoc with in 1/3 cases?

Down's syndrome

26

Symptoms of R to L shunt?

Cyanosis
Venous emboli are paradoxical (systemic)

27

5 diseases with R to L shunt

Tetralogy of fallot
Transposition great vessels
Truncus arteriosus
Tricuspid atresia
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

28

4 features of tetralogy of fallot

VSD
Pulmonary artery stenosis
RV hypertrophy
Overriding aorta

29

What is truncus arteriosus associated with?

VSD

30

2 symptoms truncus arteriousus

Cyanosis
Increased pulmonary blood flow

31

3 conditions that require a shunt to survive?

Transposition great arteries
Tricuspid atresia
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

32

3 types obstructive coronary heart disease?

Coarctation of the aorta
Pulmonary stenosis
Aortic stenosis

33

Coarctation of the aorta is associated with what two things?

Turner's syndrome 45X
Bicuspid aortic valve

34

Coarctation of the aorta has which 2 forms

Infantile and adult

35

3 types aortic stenosis

valvular
subvalvular
supravalvular