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Flashcards in Heart failure and congenital Deck (35)
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1

What 3 things and 2 principles can lead to left heart failure?

HTN
Valve disfunction
MI
Principles- pressure and volume overload.

2

2 causes of RHF?

LHF
Cor pulmonale

3

Difference between L and R HF?

Left- low output to body
Right- blood not removed from veins

4

3 symptoms LHF

Fluid retention
Stupor
Pulmonary oedema

5

3 symptoms RHF

Liver and spleen congestion/hypertrophy
Pleural/pericardial effusion
Peripheral oedema

6

How does the heart muscle end up in heart failure?

Hypertrophied and dilated

7

2 types stenosis

Aortic and mitral

8

Aortic stenosis results in

LV hypertrophy

9

Mitral stenosis results in (5)

pancarditis
inflammation
aschoff bodies
vegetations
thickened valve

10

2 causes of mitral stenosis

Rheumatic HD- group A strep
Mitral annular calcification

11

2 types regurg

Aortic and mitral

12

4 causes aortic regurg

rheumatic
infection
marfan syndrome
syphilis

13

4 causes mitral regurg

infection
fen-phen
mitral annular calcification
mitral valve prolapse

14

What is mitral valve prolapse?

Myxomatous degeneration of the valve

15

3 features of mitral valve prolapse

Often asymptomatic
Mild systolic click
Chest pain/dyspnoea

16

3 rare complications of mitral valve prolapse

Infective endocarditis
Arrythmias
Death

17

L to R shunts symptoms

Pulmonary hypertension
NO cyanosis

18

4 diseases with L to R shunt

ASD
VSD
PDA
AVSD

19

3 types atrial septal defect

Secundum (most common- defective fossa ovalis)
Primum
Sinus venosus

20

Most common heart defect?

VSD

21

Large VSD= ?

pulmonary hypertension

22

4 things patent ductus arteriosus is associated with

VSD
Coarctation aorta
Pulmonary stenosis
Aortic stenosis

23

When might the shunt switch to R to L in PDA?

when pulmonary HTN reaches systemic levels

24

When would it be good to keep the ductus arteriosus patent?

TRansposition of great vessels

25

What is AVSD assoc with in 1/3 cases?

Down's syndrome

26

Symptoms of R to L shunt?

Cyanosis
Venous emboli are paradoxical (systemic)

27

5 diseases with R to L shunt

Tetralogy of fallot
Transposition great vessels
Truncus arteriosus
Tricuspid atresia
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

28

4 features of tetralogy of fallot

VSD
Pulmonary artery stenosis
RV hypertrophy
Overriding aorta

29

What is truncus arteriosus associated with?

VSD

30

2 symptoms truncus arteriousus

Cyanosis
Increased pulmonary blood flow