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Flashcards in RESS Deck (55)
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1

What is the scientific method?

Observation
Propose or modify hypothesis
Test hypothesis
Reject hypothesis and modify it
OR not reject hypothesis and re-test

2

Is there truth in science?

No

3

What are the 3 requirements of a health outcome?

Validity, reliability, responsiveness

4

What is validity?

Whether it accurately measures what it purports to measure

5

What is reliability?

Same result if retest?

6

What is responsiveness?

Does it detect changes when they occur?

7

Definition of a fact?

Confirmed to such a degree that disagreement would be perverse

8

Definition of a hypothesis?

A testable statement that describes an observation

9

How do you verify a hypothesis?

Not falsifying it

10

4 things a hypothesis must be?

Plausible
Testable
Have direction
Precise

11

Economics is about limited ______ and unlimited_____?

Resources
'Wants'

12

What is opportunity cost?

Choosing A over B means giving up B

13

What is technical efficiency?

What is the best way to deliver a programme?

14

What is allocative efficiency?

Producing something that matches demand

15

Resources being allocated between activities in such a way as to maximise benefit is called?

Economic efficiency

16

What is the 'margin' in economics?

The next step

17

What are the marginal benefits and costs?

The benefits and costs of taking the next step

18

Does efficiency consider WHO benefits?

No

19

What is equity?

Fairness or justice of the distributions

20

What is the cost and what is the outcome for cost benefit?

Both are monetary value

21

What is the cost and what is the outcome for cost effectiveness

Cost: monetary value
Outcome: Natural units e.g. life years saved

22

What is the cost and what is the outcome for cost utility?

Cost: monetary value
Outcome: utility values e.g. QALYs

23

What type of cost analysis do NICE use?

Cost utility analysis

24

What is EQ-5D?

Way of finding out QALYs, a survey that uses country specific data for its algorithm

25

What perspectives might be considered in determining cost perspective?

Societal (absence from work etc)
Health care system

26

Cost effectiveness ratio =?

Cost/QALYs

27

What is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio?

Change in cost/ change in effectiveness

28

What does a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve show?

The probability that the intervention is cost effective compared with the alternative.
Cost effectiveness threshold aka willingness to pay
against
probability

29

In normal distribution which average is used?

Mean and SD

30

In skewed distribution which average is used?

Median and IQR