Flashcards in RESS Deck (55)
What is the scientific method?
Propose or modify hypothesis
Reject hypothesis and modify it
OR not reject hypothesis and re-test
Is there truth in science?
What are the 3 requirements of a health outcome?
Validity, reliability, responsiveness
What is validity?
Whether it accurately measures what it purports to measure
What is reliability?
Same result if retest?
What is responsiveness?
Does it detect changes when they occur?
Definition of a fact?
Confirmed to such a degree that disagreement would be perverse
Definition of a hypothesis?
A testable statement that describes an observation
How do you verify a hypothesis?
Not falsifying it
4 things a hypothesis must be?
Economics is about limited ______ and unlimited_____?
What is opportunity cost?
Choosing A over B means giving up B
What is technical efficiency?
What is the best way to deliver a programme?
What is allocative efficiency?
Producing something that matches demand
Resources being allocated between activities in such a way as to maximise benefit is called?
What is the 'margin' in economics?
The next step
What are the marginal benefits and costs?
The benefits and costs of taking the next step
Does efficiency consider WHO benefits?
What is equity?
Fairness or justice of the distributions
What is the cost and what is the outcome for cost benefit?
Both are monetary value
What is the cost and what is the outcome for cost effectiveness
Cost: monetary value
Outcome: Natural units e.g. life years saved
What is the cost and what is the outcome for cost utility?
Cost: monetary value
Outcome: utility values e.g. QALYs
What type of cost analysis do NICE use?
Cost utility analysis
What is EQ-5D?
Way of finding out QALYs, a survey that uses country specific data for its algorithm
What perspectives might be considered in determining cost perspective?
Societal (absence from work etc)
Health care system
Cost effectiveness ratio =?
What is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio?
Change in cost/ change in effectiveness
What does a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve show?
The probability that the intervention is cost effective compared with the alternative.
Cost effectiveness threshold aka willingness to pay
In normal distribution which average is used?
Mean and SD