Flashcards in Control term 1 Deck (72):
Lareral sulcus divides?
Frontal and temporal lobes
Thalamus and hypothalmus
How is the medulla oblongata derived embryologically?
Rhomencephalon --> myencephalon --> MO
How is the diencephalon derived embryologically?
2 layers of dura are called
Meningeal and periosteal
The middle cerebral artery is a continuation of what?
From where does the posterior inferior cereballar artery arise?
From where does the posterior cerebral artery arise?
Weak area of the skull is called? What lies beneath it?
Middle meningeal artery
What is the ciliary ganglion supplied by, and where does it go, via what?
CNIII, via V1 to sphincter pupillae
The facial nerve supplies which to ganglia? Where do these go and via what?
Submandibular --> V3 --> Submandibular and sublingual glands
How does information get from CNIX to the parotid?
Via the otic ganglion and V3
Third ventricle is between?
Fourth ventricle is between?
Cerebellum and pons
What connects the third and fourth ventricles?
Where is the reticular formation
Reticular formation controls what?
Gives rise to motor pathways
Ascending reticular activating system involved in what?
Where do superficial veins of the brain drain to?
Superior sagittal sinus
Confluence of sinuses
Where do deep veins drain to?
Great cerebral vein
Confluence of sinuses
Tectum contains the
Superior and inferior colliculi
Trigeminal is motor to what?
Muscles of mastication
Trigeminal sensory to what?
Anterior scalp, dura, teeth, mucous membranes, skin of face
Damage to trigem=jaw deviates to ? side
Chorda tympani carries fibres between the ? and ? nerve
Facial and lingual (from trigem)
Innervation of the tongue?
Ant 2/3 taste- facial
Post 1/3- glossop
What is Bell's palsy
dysfunction of facial nerve
Which cranial nerve damage = dysphagia?
Which cranial nerve damage = dysphonia?
Which cranial nerve damage = dysarthria?
XII, X, IX
Glossop innervates what sensory?
Post 1/3 tongue, oropharynx, skin ext ear, internal tympanic membrane, upper pharynx
In vagus nerve damage uvula devaites to ? side?
Hypoglossal nerve damage tongue deviates to ? side
Facial nerve action on glands?
Parasymp to all glands except parotid (that is glossop)
Action of subthalamus
Action of epithalamus
Secretes melatonin so diurnal rythm
Corpus collusum and anterior commisure are dervied from what?
Cerebrum to outside cerebrum
What produces CSF?
Where does CSF go?
Ventricles, subarachnoid space, arachnoid villi, dural venous sinuses
White matter contains what
The medial surface of the occipital lobe is bisected by the ?
Major function of basal ganglia?
Corpus striatum is made of?
Caudate and lentiform nucleii
Lentiform nucleus = ?+?
Putamen and globus pallidus
Striatum = ?+?
Caudate nucleus and putamen
Nerve supply of infrahyoid muscles
Ansa cervicalis (c1) except thyrohyoid is C1 via hypoglossal
What is in the carotid sheath?
Common carotid artery
Vagus nerve (or last 4 CNs in the upper part of the neck)
Vertebral level of the carotid bifurcation? What is a landmark?
4 branches of external carotid
Innervation of intrinsic muscles of larynx?
recurrent laryngeal (branch of vagus) apart from cricothyroid is ext. branch of superior laryngeal
What does the internal laryngeal nerve supply?
Epiglottis, base of tongue, lining of larynx
Course of left recurrent laryngeal?
Loops under aortic arch
Symptoms of horners?
Ipisilateral ptosis, miosis and anhidrosis
Which muscle is not working to cause ptosis in horners?
Which muscle changes the shape of the lens?
Ciliary and iris sphincter muscles are both innervated via what?
Difference between Horner's and oculomotor palsy?
Horner's = constricted pupil (no sympathetic innervation to dilate it), Oculomotor = dilated as no sphincter pupillae to constrict it
Nerve to digastric?
6 categories of consciousness
Coma, stupour, sopor, somnolence, alertness, hyperalertness
Difference between coma and PVS?
In PVS more lower brain function- can track movement, sleep wake cycle or chronic wakefullness. May smile/cry/scream etc without stimulus
5 exclusions from brain death
Limbic lobe= ?+?
Parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus
Cingulate gyrus contains?
Assoc fibres from frontal lobe, runs into parietal lobe then visual cortex and uncus, and takes this info to the hippocampus in the temporal lobe
Limbic lobe involved in what sort of behaviour?
Learned programmed activities e.g. driving, using cutlery
Uncus is primary projection area for?
Agnosia is what
Disorder of understanding
Apraxia is what
Inability to carry out purposeful movement even though can move
2 general association cortices?
Parieto-temporal (all different senses then cingulate gyrus so involved in memory)
Prefrontal cortex (mood and feelings, higher order cognitive functions - planning, judgement)