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Flashcards in Control term 1 Deck (72):
1

Lareral sulcus divides?

Frontal and temporal lobes

2

Diencephalon contains

Thalamus and hypothalmus

3

How is the medulla oblongata derived embryologically?

Rhomencephalon --> myencephalon --> MO

4

How is the diencephalon derived embryologically?

Prosencephalon -->diencephalon

5

2 layers of dura are called

Meningeal and periosteal

6

The middle cerebral artery is a continuation of what?

Internal carotid

7

From where does the posterior inferior cereballar artery arise?

Vertebral

8

From where does the posterior cerebral artery arise?

Inferior communicating

9

Weak area of the skull is called? What lies beneath it?

Pterion
Middle meningeal artery

10

What is the ciliary ganglion supplied by, and where does it go, via what?

CNIII, via V1 to sphincter pupillae

11

The facial nerve supplies which to ganglia? Where do these go and via what?

Pterygopalatine-->V2-->lacrimal gland
Submandibular --> V3 --> Submandibular and sublingual glands

12

How does information get from CNIX to the parotid?

Via the otic ganglion and V3

13

Third ventricle is between?

Thalami

14

Fourth ventricle is between?

Cerebellum and pons

15

What connects the third and fourth ventricles?

Cerebral aqueduct

16

Where is the reticular formation

Tegmentum

17

Reticular formation controls what?

Gives rise to motor pathways
Autonomic centres

18

Ascending reticular activating system involved in what?

Consciousness
Pain
Sleep cycle
Arousal

19

Where do superficial veins of the brain drain to?

Superior sagittal sinus
Confluence of sinuses
Transverse
Sigmoid
IJV

20

Where do deep veins drain to?

Great cerebral vein
Confluence of sinuses
Transverse
Sigmoid
IJV

21

Tectum contains the

Superior and inferior colliculi

22

Trigeminal is motor to what?

Muscles of mastication
Swallowing
Tensor tympani

23

Trigeminal sensory to what?

Anterior scalp, dura, teeth, mucous membranes, skin of face

24

Damage to trigem=jaw deviates to ? side

Ipsilateral

25

Chorda tympani carries fibres between the ? and ? nerve

Facial and lingual (from trigem)

26

Innervation of the tongue?

Ant 2/3 taste- facial
Post 1/3- glossop
Motor- hypoglossal

27

What is Bell's palsy

dysfunction of facial nerve

28

Which cranial nerve damage = dysphagia?

IX

29

Which cranial nerve damage = dysphonia?

X

30

Which cranial nerve damage = dysarthria?

XII, X, IX

31

Glossop innervates what sensory?

Post 1/3 tongue, oropharynx, skin ext ear, internal tympanic membrane, upper pharynx

32

In vagus nerve damage uvula devaites to ? side?

Contralateral

33

Hypoglossal nerve damage tongue deviates to ? side

Ipsilateral

34

Facial nerve action on glands?

Parasymp to all glands except parotid (that is glossop)

35

Action of subthalamus

Motor control

36

Action of epithalamus

Secretes melatonin so diurnal rythm

37

Corpus collusum and anterior commisure are dervied from what?

Lamina terminalis

38

Association fibres

Same hemisphere

39

Commisural fibres

different hemisphere

40

Projection fibres

Cerebrum to outside cerebrum

41

What produces CSF?

Choroid plexus

42

Where does CSF go?

Ventricles, subarachnoid space, arachnoid villi, dural venous sinuses

43

White matter contains what

Axons

44

The medial surface of the occipital lobe is bisected by the ?

Calcarine sulcus

45

Major function of basal ganglia?

Coordinate movement

46

Corpus striatum is made of?

Caudate and lentiform nucleii

47

Lentiform nucleus = ?+?

Putamen and globus pallidus

48

Striatum = ?+?

Caudate nucleus and putamen

49

Nerve supply of infrahyoid muscles

Ansa cervicalis (c1) except thyrohyoid is C1 via hypoglossal

50

What is in the carotid sheath?

Common carotid artery
IJV
Vagus nerve (or last 4 CNs in the upper part of the neck)

51

Vertebral level of the carotid bifurcation? What is a landmark?

C4
Thyroid cartilage

52

4 branches of external carotid

Superior thyroid
Lingual
Facial
Maxillary

53

Innervation of intrinsic muscles of larynx?

recurrent laryngeal (branch of vagus) apart from cricothyroid is ext. branch of superior laryngeal

54

What does the internal laryngeal nerve supply?

Epiglottis, base of tongue, lining of larynx

55

Course of left recurrent laryngeal?

Loops under aortic arch

56

Symptoms of horners?

Ipisilateral ptosis, miosis and anhidrosis

57

Which muscle is not working to cause ptosis in horners?

superior tarsal

58

Which muscle changes the shape of the lens?

Ciliary

59

Ciliary and iris sphincter muscles are both innervated via what?

Ciliary ganglion

60

Difference between Horner's and oculomotor palsy?

Horner's = constricted pupil (no sympathetic innervation to dilate it), Oculomotor = dilated as no sphincter pupillae to constrict it

61

Nerve to digastric?

Facial

62

6 categories of consciousness

Coma, stupour, sopor, somnolence, alertness, hyperalertness

63

Difference between coma and PVS?

In PVS more lower brain function- can track movement, sleep wake cycle or chronic wakefullness. May smile/cry/scream etc without stimulus

64

5 exclusions from brain death

Drug effects
Hyothermia
Metabolic abnormalities
Endocrine abnormalities
Intoxification

65

Limbic lobe= ?+?

Parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus

66

Cingulate gyrus contains?

Assoc fibres from frontal lobe, runs into parietal lobe then visual cortex and uncus, and takes this info to the hippocampus in the temporal lobe

67

Limbic lobe involved in what sort of behaviour?

Learned programmed activities e.g. driving, using cutlery

68

Uncus is primary projection area for?

Smell

69

Agnosia is what

Disorder of understanding

70

Apraxia is what

Inability to carry out purposeful movement even though can move

71

2 general association cortices?

Parieto-temporal (all different senses then cingulate gyrus so involved in memory)
Prefrontal cortex (mood and feelings, higher order cognitive functions - planning, judgement)

72

Which side is linguistic function normally on?

Left/dominant hemisphere