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Flashcards in music 300-350 Deck (50):

What is syncopation?

Syncopation occurs when beats are stressed at unexpected or unusual times.


What does a 5/8 time signature indicate?

A 5/8 time signature means that there are five (5) beats per measure and that the eighth (8) note receives one beat.


How does a note change if a dot is added next to it?

A dot next to a note indicates that the duration of the note equals the length of the original note plus half its length. For example, a dotted eighth note has the length of an eighth note plus a sixteenth note.


In what unit is tempo usually measured?

Tempo is usually measured in beats per minute.


What is the difference between the terms adagio and allegro?

both adagio and allegro are terms that indicate; however, adagio means "slow" while allegro means "fast."


What does the tempo marking "maestoso" mean?



What is melody?

Melody refers to a series of pitches that form a cohesive tune.


How are notes on the staff named?

Notes on the staff are named using the letters A through g.


What is another name for the treble clef?

G clef


What is another name for the bass clef?

F Clef


The second line from the bottom of a treble-clef staff is a



What is the grand staff?

The grand staff includes both the treble and bass clef staffs so that a wide range of pitches can be seen at once.


What is a scale?

A scale is a sequence


what textural and melodic similarities exist between a fugue and a motet

both feature extensive polyphony and melodic repetition


how many sections does a piece of binary from contain



what is the typical chord progression within sections in binary form

the first section moves from the tonic to the dominant; the second section moves from the dominant back to the tonic


how is rounded binary form different from simple binary form

in rounded binary form, the first section returns to the tonic in a slightly modified way after the second section, thus creating the a section, in simple binary the b section contains the return to the tonic


what is the differenve between ternary form and rounded binary form

ternary form has three sections. the third section is identical to the first whereas rounded binary form includes a return if the A section in a modified form


what is the structure of a rondo

a rondo contains one section that alternates with at least two other sections, creating the structure abacada


what is the name of the binary form most common in american popular music

verse/chorus or verse/ refrain


what is a bridge

a bridge is a unique section added to a binary form song, typically before the last refrain


how does the inclusion of a bridge add to the musical complexity of binary form

the bridge is typically written in the dominant, which increases the musical tension of the work before returning to the tonic in the final chorus


what is the term for the form of a song that contains several unique sections without repetition

through composed


mozarts" ah, vous dirais-je maman" takes the well known tune of "Twinkle twinkle little star" and repeats it again and again in many different forms, so its form is that of

theme and variations


what are the three sections of a work written in sonata form

exposition, development, and recapitulation


what is the purpose of the exposition in sonata form

the exposition serves to introduce the main theme or themes of the piece in the tonic key


in what key does the development of a piece in sonata form typically end

the dominant


what is the purpose of the recapitulation in sonata form

the recapitulation restates the main theme of the piece, often with variation


what is a coda

a coda is a final section in a piece that gives it a formal sense of closure by emphasizing dominant harmonies and their resolution to the tonic one last time


what chords or keys are typically accentuated in the coda

the coda typically focuses on the subdominant or dominant harmonies and then resolves to the tonic key


during what two musical eras was the sonata form most popular

classical and romantic


a piece that begins with an opening themes, modulates through a number of different keys and ends with a restatement of the opening theme is in what form

sonata form


along with binary form, what other form has had a significant influence upon most american popular music

12 bar blues


what is the alphabetic structure of 12 bar blues

aab:the first four bars (A) are repeated (A) and then resolved by a contrasting four-bar section (B)


in typical 12 bar blues, how many measures long is each phrase

each of the three phrases in the 12 bar blues progression is four measures or bars long


what is the typical chord progression of the third phrase of 12 bar blues



what combination of instruments is usually responsible for creating the timbre we associate with country music

fiddle, acoustic guitar, steel guitar, and banjo


What is a diatonic scale?

A diatonic


What is the sequence of whole and half steps of a major scale?

Major scales all follow the following sequence: whole, whole, half, whole whole, whole, half. Thus the half steps fall between the third and fourth notes of the scale and between the seventh and eighth.


What is the name of the first note in a scale?

The first note in a scale is called the tonic.


The dominant represents what scale degree?

The dominant is the fifth note in a major or minor scale.


What is the significance of the seventh note in a scale?

The seventh note is known as the leading tone because it creates a musical tension that seems to "lead" the ear to the tonic note.


In a D major scale, what are the letter names of the dominant and leading tones?

In a D major scale, A is the dominant and C# is the leading tone.


what word is used two notes that are notated differently according to the key in which they occur but that are, in fact, the same note



how and why is the circle of fifths constructed

the circles of fifths is constructed by starting with C and ascending by fifths until C is again reached. they key C has no sharps or flats in it. Each subsequent key in the circle of fifths has one more sharp than the previous key


how does the ascending melodic minor scale differ from the descending melodic minor scale

in the ascending scale the sixth and seventh notes are raised a half step in comparison to the natural minor scale. in the descending scale, the sicth and seventh notes re not raised, making it identical to the natual minor scale


in order form highest to lowest pitch, what are the three ranges of the female voice

soprano, mezzo soprano, and alto


in order form lowest to highest pitch, what are the three ranges of the male voice

bass, baritone, and tenor


what is the another name for the alto voice range



although the alto and tenor voice ranges overlap greatly in pitch, how do they differ

though overlapping in pitch range alto and tenor parts are distinct from each other because the physiology of the female and male voices give each one a unique timbre