Neoplasia 1 8-6-15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neoplasia 1 8-6-15 Deck (25):
1

What does neoplasia mean?

new growth
-disorder of cell growth
-triggered by series of acquired mutations of single cell and it clones
-monoclonal, autonomous, irreversible

2

What is a tumor?

abnormal growth of tissue

3

WHat is benign vs malignant?

benign- remain localized, do not metastasize
malignant- invade, destroy, and metastasize

4

What is cancer?

generic term for malignant neoplasm

5

THe two basic components of all tumors are parenchyma and stroma, describe parenchyma and stroma

Parenchyma
-neoplastic cells
-determine biological behavior
-source for the name of neoplasm
-neuroectodermal, epithelial, or mesenchymal in origin

Stroma
-connective tissue, blood vessels, immune system cells
-support growth and spread of neoplasm

6

How are tumors classified? What is oma vs. sarcoma

according to their cell of origin
oma=benign
sarcoma=malignanat

7

What is a mixed tumors derived from 1 germ layer?

-single neoplastic clone capable of divergent differentiation
-derived from 1 germ cell
-more than 1 neoplastic cell type

Example: Salivary Gland
-Clone capable of epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation

-Pleomorphic adenoma-neoplastic epithelial cells scattered in neoplastic myxoid stroma

8

What are teratomas?

-rare tumors contain cells from more than one germ layer

9

What is a mixed tumor derived from more than 1 germ layer?

totipotent germ cells differentiate into any cell types found in human body
-neoplasms originate in gonads, abnormal midline embryonic rests

10

What is the cell morphology, rate of growth, spread of tumor for a benign tumor?

Morphology
-Well-differentiated(resemble normal tissue compartment) to dysplastic
Rate of Growth
-Grow more slowly
Spread of Tumor
-Most encapsulated and stay localized

11

What is the cell morphology, rate of growth, spread of tumor for a malignant tumor?

Morphology
-well differentiated to very de -differentiated (anaplastic)
-pleomorphic (variation in nuclear shape and size)
-Abnormal nuclear morphology (high N/C ratio, hyperchromatic, prominent nucleoli)
-Mitosis

Rate of Growth
-Highly variable and unpredictable
-Usually varies with degree of differentiation

Spread of Tumor
-Infiltrate and destroy locally
-ability to metastasize

12

What do well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas of the skin look like?

-tumor cells strikingly similar to normal squamous epithelial cells with intracellular bridges and nest of keratin (keratin pearls)

13

What is dysplasia?

disordered growth
-principally found in epithelium
-mutations leading to cytological and architectural changes of
-may be a PRECURSOR to malignant transformation
-mild to moderate dysplasias may regress (ie reversible)-particularly if inciting causes are removed

14

What is squamous carcinoma in-situ?

entire thickness of epithelium is replaced by atypical dysplastic cells
-no orderly differentiation of squamous cells
-basement membrane is intact and there is no tumor in the subepithelial stroma

15

Where does dysplasia often occur?

metaplastic epithelium
EX
-squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix
-squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

16

How does metastasis occur?

1. seeding within natural body cavities
-ovarian carcinomas seed peritoneal cavities
2. lymphatic spread
-more typical of carcinomas
3. hematogenous spread
-more typical of sarcomas

17

Why does cancer incidence vary with geography?

exposure to different environmental carcinogens

18

What are some proposed mechanisms to why obesity is associated with cancer?

-elevated insulin levels
-increased estrogens
-decreased adiponectin
-proinflammatory state

19

coal products, tar and mineral oils lead to ...
aromatic amines and azo dyes in dye and rubber industry lead to...
asbestos exposure in construction and ship building lead to...

lung cancer
bladder
lung

20

Most cancers occur in greater 55 year olds, what is the most common cancer?

-carcinomas
-likely increased incidence of somatic mutations
-decline in immune competence with age

21

Cancer accounts for greater than 10% of deaths in children

-CNS neoplasms most common
-also theres leukemias

22

What are two autosomal dominant cancer syndromes?

1. familial adenomatous polyps of colon: nearly 100 develop colon cancer
2. familial retinoblastoma
-100,000 times risk of cancer than in general population

23

What is a type of recessive syndrome of defective DNA repair that has the tendency to lead to cancer?

-xeroderma pigmentosum

24

Familiar cancers of uncertain inheritance have?

unclear pattern of inheritance and evident familial clustering

25

If you have chronic inflammation particularly T-cell deficiencies, is this a acquired predisposing condition?

yes