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Flashcards in Origins Of Writing Deck (12):

Attribute [v,n]


 / ə'trɪbjut / 

+ Thuộc tính [n]

+ Cho là, quy cho [v]


Carve  [v]

/ kɑ:v /





- To make an object or pattern by cutting a piece of wood or stone  →  carving 

carve something out of/from something 

>>a statue carved from a single block of marble 

+ Cắt, khắc, trạm, đục


Civilization [n]


/ sɪvəlaɪ'zeɪʃən / 


- A society that is well organized and developed, used especially about a particular society in a particular place or at a particular time  →  civilized :  

>>modern American civilization 

civilization of 

>>the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome 

+ Nền văn minh


Deed  [n]

/ di:d /





1. Something someone does, especially something that is very good or very bad :  

>>After the morning’s  good deeds he deserved a rest. 

>>She tried to strangle her baby and her lover helped her finish the evil deed . 

2. An official paper that is a record of an agreement, especially an agreement concerning who owns property

+ Văn bản, chứng thư


Encompass [v]


/ ɪn'kʌmpəs /


1. To include a wide range of ideas, subjects, etc :  

>>The study encompasses the social, political, and economic aspects of the situation. 

2. To completely cover or surround something :  

>>The houses encompassed about 100 square metres. 

+ Vây quanh, bao quanh, chứa đựng

+ Hoàn thành, hoàn thiện


Excavate [v]


/ 'ekskəveɪt /



1. If a scientist or archaeologist excavates an area of land, they dig carefully to find ancient objects, bones etc :  

>>Schliemann excavated the ancient city of Troy. 

2. To make a hole in the ground by digging up soil etc 

— excavation  / ekskəveɪʃ ə n /   noun  [ uncountable and countable ] 

+ Đào, khai quật


Inscribe [v]


/ ɪn'skraɪb /



- To carefully cut, print, or write words on something, especially on the surface of a stone or coin → engrave :  

be inscribed in/on something 

>>The team’s name is inscribed on the base of the trophy. 

be inscribed with something 

>>The tomb was inscribed with a short poem. 

+ Viết, khắc chữ


Literacy [n]


/ 'lɪtərəsi / 



- The state of being able to read and write OPP illiteracy → numeracy:  

>>a new adult literacy campaign  

+ Sự biết viết, sự biết đọc



Mythology [n]


/ mɪ'θɒlədʒi / 


1. Set of ancient myths :  

mythology of 

>>The mythology of the Persians 

2. Ideas or opinions that many people have, but that are wrong or not true :  

>>According to popular mythology, school days are the best days of your life. 

+ Thần thoại


— mythological  / mɪθəlɒdʒɪk ə l◂  $  -lɑ- /   adjective :  

The walls are painted with mythological scenes. 



Settle [v]


/ 'setl /





1. To end an argument or solve a disagreement 

settle a dispute/lawsuit/conflict/argument etc 

>>Rodman met with Kreeger to try and settle the dispute over his contract. 

settle with 

>>She finally settled with her former employers for an undisclosed sum. 

2. To decide what you are going to do, especially so that you can make definite arrangements :  

>>It’s settled  then. I’ll go back to the States in June. 

+ Giải quyết, dàn xếp, hoà giải


Specialized [adj]


/ 'speʃəlaɪzd /



- Trained, designed, or developed for a particular purpose, type of work, place etc :  

>>Specialized training for specific jobs 

>>the highly specialized plants that live in desert areas 



Token [n]


/ təʊkən /



1. A round piece of metal that you use instead of money in some machines 

2. Something that represents a feeling, fact, event etc 

a token of your gratitude/respect/appreciation etc 

>>Please accept this gift as a small token of our appreciation. 

+ Dấu hiệu, vật kỷ niệm

+ Phiếu, thẻ đổi hàng