Flashcards in Prohibition Deck (44):
What was the 'era of prohib'
It was the time when the making, selling or transporting of alcoholic drink became illegal in the USA
Name two groups that had long campaigns to enforce prohib
Woman's Christian Temperance Union (1874)
Anti-Saloon League (1895)
What did the WCTU and A-SL claim
That alcohol brought poverty, broke up marriages, caused crime and insanity and disrupted industry
By 1917 how many American states had already banned alcohol
When did the prohibition ban become national
Which Amendment made prohibition part of the US Constitution
The 18th Amendment
What is an amendment
In American politics, a change made to a part of the Constitution by the Government
When was the Volstead Act and what did it define
1919 - a separate law
Defined an alcoholic drink as any drink that was more than 0.5% alcohol
Was the alcohol ban popular?
What did most people think about the alcohol ban and what did they do
They saw nothing wrong with having a drink and thus found ways to get round the law
What was moonshine
A home made alcoholic drink, usually poor quality and often caused illness and even death
What did town dwellers do to get alcohol
They looked to other to provide the alcohol they wanted
What were speakeasies
Secret bars that were set up behind locked doors in cellars and back rooms
By 1930 how many speakeasies were there in the USA
How many speakeasies were there in New York alone by 1930?
How did speakeasies get their alcohol and where did these people get the rum and whiskey from
From bootleggers who brought in rum from the West Indies and whiskey from Canada
Who persuaded legislators to ban alcohol
The moral right-wing
What was prohib driven by (two types of people)
Sociologists that saw the damage drink did to families
How were vast profits made during prohibition, and what did these profits attract
From the illegal alcohol trade
Who was Al Capone
An Italian immigrant gangster who operated in Chicago
How many men were in Capone's gang and what were they armed with ( two types of guns)
Armed with sawn-off shot guns and machine-guns
What were Capone's gang like
A private army
What happened to Capone's gangs rivals
They were 'rubbed out' (killed)
Who else was in Al Capone's pay? (Three types of people)
Many of city's leading police officers
Who did Capone mix with and what did he soon become?
He mixed with businessmen, politicians and movie stars
He became a celebrity
What did the gangsters run
Speakeasies and protection rackets
What were protection rackets
Schemes under which criminal organisations demand money from businesses to protect them from criminal action against them
What were gangsters involved in (two)
Prostitution and drug trafficking
What did gangsters but their way into? (Two)
Legal businesses and trade unions
Why did Gangland murders increase?
Bc rival gangs fought to take one another's 'territory'
How many gangsters were murdered in Chicago and for how many years?
227 killed in four years without anyone being convicted
When was the St Valentines day massacre
Feb 14th 1929
What happened at the st valentines day massacre?
Al Capone's men machine-gunned seven members of the gang run by Capone's rival 'Bugs' Moran
How many agents did the Prohibition Bureau employ
Only 4000 for the whole of the USA
Who achieved some success as an agent for prohibition?
Why were the agents unsuccessful
They were ineffective in the face of organised crime
How many agents were sacked for taking bribes? (Something in 10)
1 in 10
Why was it strange that prohib was not agreed by most Americans?
Because the temperance groups were so strong in enforcing their views and they got their way
What was the most important reason for the failure of prohibition?
The lack of popular support
What were Americans prepared to do to consume alcohol
Prepared to break the law
When did prohibition end?
Which president repealed the 18th amendment
President Franklin D Roosevelt
What was a result of the 18th amendment appeal in terms of crime
Crime associated with prohib was gradually brought under control