Flashcards in Human Effects Of The Depression Deck (49):
Which industries continued to prosper during the Depression?
Electronics, aviation and the film industry
What did people who had a job and income benefit from
The lower prices
What percentage was unemployment at in 1933
What was happening in the industrial cities in the north?
The rate of unemployment was even higher
Factories and businesses cut down on production or shut down completely
How much of the labour force was unemployed in Chicago in 1933
Half the labour force
How many black people of working age were unemployed in Charleston in 1931
Blacks were especially hard hit
How many blacks in Memphis were unemployed in 1931
What did hundreds and thousands of Americans do to try and find work
Took to the roads and travelled as hobos from place to place
What were some serious effects of the Great Depression on Americans? (7 please) 1929-32
1) fall in exports, production, sales, wages
2) Banks bankrupted = run on banks/banking crisis
3) farmers bankrupt = drift to Cali
4) unemp - ESP. North and black community = hobos and beggars
5) homelessness = Hoovervilles
6) charity = soup kitchens and breadlines
7) bonus army, riots, demonstrations
What was a non so serious effect of Great Depression on Americans? 1929-32
Not everyone suffered
'New industries' prospered, people with steady wages benefitted from falling prices
When Americans became unemployed what happened (help)
There were no dole parents to help them
Why did homeless people have to sell possessions? (Two)
To pay back loans or credit taken out during the good years
What happened to homeless people who could not meet their mortgage payments
Their house was repossessed
How many Americans lost their homes in 1932 alone?
Where did homeless people sleep when they were on the streets
Park benches or bus shelters
What extremes did homeless people go to?
They deliberately got themselves arrested so they could spend the night in jail
What were Hoovervilles made up of and where did people build them mostly?
Hoovervilles from whatever they could find - corrugated iron, scrap metal, old wood.
Many built on waste grounds
Why did the shelters become called Hoovervilles
Because it was an insult to the president, Herbert Hoover, who had a policy of 'rugged individualism' which meant he did not help the people - 'every man for himself'
When were the ww1 soldiers promised to get their 'bonus' (pension)
When did many war veterans start asking the government to pay the bonuses up front?
How many veterans went to Washington to protest to the government
What did the bonus army do opposite the White House
They set up a Hooverville
Who did Hoover call in to deal with the veterans (two forces)
Police, then army
How did troops clear out the Bonus Army from the camp? (What they did and what they did after)
Used tanks and tear gas to clear out
Set fire to tents and shelters
How many veterans were killed and injured from the violent government clear out?
Nearly a thousand others injured
What was the result of hoover's actions?
He became even more unpopular
What did the USA not have, unlike Britain, in terms of help
They did not have a social security system which would pay unemployment benefit to the jobless
What did some towns and cities do in terms of help (charity) and what did this provide
Set up their own public relief programmes which provided temp homes, food, clothes and jobs
Give an example of a charity which ran private charities
The salvation army
Who was a wealthy individual who gave help to the unemployed and poor? And where did this person do it
Al Capone provided food in Chicago
What did charities set up for hunger relief (3)
Cheap food centres
What were breadlines
Long lines of men and women queuing for free bread and soup
What was a famous song that summed up the mood of Americans during the depression?
'Buddy, Can You Spare A Dime?'
What was a result of unemployment in the towns on farmers?
They sold less of their produce
What was a result of farm produce falling so much
It was nonprofitable to harvest crops.
Wheat was left to rot in the fields and farmers went bankrupt
What was another problem that hit some farmers in the 1930s
The dust bowl
During the First World War what did some states in the south and the midwest such as (give 2) resulted in farmers moving from which type of farming to watch type of farming
Oklahoma and Kansas
Moved from cattle farming to growing crops and this was the demand at the time
What was the result of crop growing being continued in the 1920s
The land was being over farmed, and the soil was damaged
When did the drought hit America
In the years after the 1930s
How did land become like a desert
Strong winds and low rainfall turned the topsoil into dust
What was the result of the dustbowl
Thousand and farmers were ruined. Left with no choice but to abandon farms and look for work elsewhere. Many drifted to California-fruit farms
--> migrant workers
When was the Empire State building opened
When was the Hoover Dam opened
When was the golden gate bridge opened
What three new products were introduced in 1938
Nylons, nonstick pans and fibreglass
When were the first television channels established
In 1928 how many passengers could American Airlines Carry
In 1938 how many passengers could American Airlines Carry