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Flashcards in Human Effects Of The Depression Deck (49):
0

Which industries continued to prosper during the Depression?

Electronics, aviation and the film industry

1

What did people who had a job and income benefit from

The lower prices

2

What percentage was unemployment at in 1933

25%

3

What was happening in the industrial cities in the north?

The rate of unemployment was even higher
Factories and businesses cut down on production or shut down completely

4

How much of the labour force was unemployed in Chicago in 1933

Half the labour force

5

How many black people of working age were unemployed in Charleston in 1931

70%

Blacks were especially hard hit

6

How many blacks in Memphis were unemployed in 1931

75%

7

What did hundreds and thousands of Americans do to try and find work

Took to the roads and travelled as hobos from place to place

8

What were some serious effects of the Great Depression on Americans? (7 please) 1929-32

1) fall in exports, production, sales, wages
2) Banks bankrupted = run on banks/banking crisis
3) farmers bankrupt = drift to Cali
4) unemp - ESP. North and black community = hobos and beggars
5) homelessness = Hoovervilles
6) charity = soup kitchens and breadlines
7) bonus army, riots, demonstrations

9

What was a non so serious effect of Great Depression on Americans? 1929-32

Not everyone suffered
'New industries' prospered, people with steady wages benefitted from falling prices

10

When Americans became unemployed what happened (help)

There were no dole parents to help them

11

Why did homeless people have to sell possessions? (Two)

To pay back loans or credit taken out during the good years

12

What happened to homeless people who could not meet their mortgage payments

Their house was repossessed

13

How many Americans lost their homes in 1932 alone?

250,000

14

Where did homeless people sleep when they were on the streets

Park benches or bus shelters

15

What extremes did homeless people go to?

They deliberately got themselves arrested so they could spend the night in jail

16

What were Hoovervilles made up of and where did people build them mostly?

Hoovervilles from whatever they could find - corrugated iron, scrap metal, old wood.

Many built on waste grounds

17

Why did the shelters become called Hoovervilles

Because it was an insult to the president, Herbert Hoover, who had a policy of 'rugged individualism' which meant he did not help the people - 'every man for himself'

18

When were the ww1 soldiers promised to get their 'bonus' (pension)

1945

19

When did many war veterans start asking the government to pay the bonuses up front?

1932

20

How many veterans went to Washington to protest to the government

20,000

21

What did the bonus army do opposite the White House

They set up a Hooverville

22

Who did Hoover call in to deal with the veterans (two forces)

Police, then army

23

How did troops clear out the Bonus Army from the camp? (What they did and what they did after)

Used tanks and tear gas to clear out

Set fire to tents and shelters

24

How many veterans were killed and injured from the violent government clear out?

Two died

Nearly a thousand others injured

25

What was the result of hoover's actions?

He became even more unpopular

26

What did the USA not have, unlike Britain, in terms of help

They did not have a social security system which would pay unemployment benefit to the jobless

27

What did some towns and cities do in terms of help (charity) and what did this provide

Set up their own public relief programmes which provided temp homes, food, clothes and jobs

28

Give an example of a charity which ran private charities

The salvation army

29

Who was a wealthy individual who gave help to the unemployed and poor? And where did this person do it

Al Capone provided food in Chicago

30

What did charities set up for hunger relief (3)

Soup kitchens
Bread kitchens
Cheap food centres

31

What were breadlines

Long lines of men and women queuing for free bread and soup

32

What was a famous song that summed up the mood of Americans during the depression?

'Buddy, Can You Spare A Dime?'

33

What was a result of unemployment in the towns on farmers?

They sold less of their produce

34

What was a result of farm produce falling so much

It was nonprofitable to harvest crops.
Wheat was left to rot in the fields and farmers went bankrupt

35

What was another problem that hit some farmers in the 1930s

The dust bowl

36

During the First World War what did some states in the south and the midwest such as (give 2) resulted in farmers moving from which type of farming to watch type of farming

Oklahoma and Kansas

Moved from cattle farming to growing crops and this was the demand at the time

37

What was the result of crop growing being continued in the 1920s

The land was being over farmed, and the soil was damaged

38

When did the drought hit America

In the years after the 1930s

39

How did land become like a desert

Strong winds and low rainfall turned the topsoil into dust

40

What was the result of the dustbowl

Thousand and farmers were ruined. Left with no choice but to abandon farms and look for work elsewhere. Many drifted to California-fruit farms
--> migrant workers

41

When was the Empire State building opened

1931

42

When was the Hoover Dam opened

1936

43

When was the golden gate bridge opened

1937

44

What three new products were introduced in 1938

Nylons, nonstick pans and fibreglass

45

When were the first television channels established

1939

46

In 1928 how many passengers could American Airlines Carry

48,000

47

In 1938 how many passengers could American Airlines Carry

1.1 million

48

How did the sale of beer boom in the 1930s

Introduction of new cans