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Flashcards in The New Deal Deck (56):

Between what dates was the election victory of Roosevelt

November 1932 and Roosevelt taking office in March 1933


What was the period between these dates called, Before Roosevelt took office in March 1933, and what did this period entail

Lame-duck months. It is when the new Administration is not yet in place-Roosevelt worked out the new deal in greater detail


What theories did Roosevelt adopt - of a British men named who and what was this mans occupation

The British economist J.M.Keynes: that's the way to end the depression was to put money in peoples pockets


What would Roosevelts Theory do?

Increase spending, which would stimulate industry and thereby kickstart the new cycle of prosperity


What did the new deal require

Massive state involvement in the economy and then setting up of government-controlled agencies


What was so significant about Roosevelts authority. What did Congress grant him?

He was given the authority to do with the new deal when congress granted him emergency powers-the sort of powers he would have had if the USA have been at war


When did Roosevelt set up the alphabet agencies

During the first hundred days in office


Why were the agencies called alphabet agencies to the people

People found it easier to remember them by their initials than by their full names


What was a result of Roosevelt realising the need to explain to the American people what he was doing

He set up fireside chats this resulted in the Americans having trust and confidence in his measures and in the recovery of the economy


What did Roosevelt say when he was sworn in as president

'the only thing we have to fear is fear itself'


How did Roosevelt perform the fireside chats. Give how they were broadcast how many Americans listen to them and what the aims were.

Broadcast over radio to reach a large audience of millions of Americans and to talk directly to them. He sat in a chair by a fire in his office he explains in simple terms why USA falling into depression and what he proposed to do to end it


The broadcasts were hugely successful-give an example of the most successful Fireside chat and what this chat dealt with

The first Fireside chat was especially successful because it dealt with the banking crisis which affected nearly all Americans


When did Roosevelt introduced an emergency banking act

March 1933


What was the emergency banking act

It meant all banks were closed for four days.
During then gov officials inspected accounts of every bank.
Only banks properly managed allowed to be open and those supported by government loans


What was the result of the emergency banking act? Give 2

1.savers kept account open

2.customers who had withdrawn their money even started to get it back into their accounts

--> banking crisis over


When was the Glass-Steagull act past and by who

June 1933 by the government


What did the Glass-Steagull Act do?

Stopped banks speculating with their customers money By insisting that savings banks could not also be investment banks


What did the glass-Steagull act forbid

It forbade banks to own other finance companies and gave the US federal reserve the right to set interest rates.


What did the rules on the GS act improve

The honesty and stability of the US banking system


When was the AAA set up and what was its long name

May 1933. Called the agricultural adjustment administration


What did the AAA do

Helped farmers increase their income by paying to produce less food = Food prices go up farmers income increases


What was the effect on farmers incomes by the aaa in the period up to 1939

Farmers incomes double


How did the AAA failed to help farmworkers

Many were evicted as there was less work for them to do


What did Roosevelt set up in an attempt to help both sides of industry-employers and workers

The national recovery Administration (NRA)


What did NRA do? (Three points)

• employers and businessmen invited to follow codes fixing fair prices for goods being sold
• emps + busmen agreed to fair conditions - minimum wages, max hours of work, forbade child labour and cheap sweated labour
• businesses that signed NRA code could advertise Blue Eagal Emblem with motto 'we do our part' - Americans encouraged to buy blue eagle goods


What were the result of the NRA


End of 1933 2 million employers, employing 22 million workers had agreed to the codes


What was the FERA and when was it created and what was it aim

Federal emergency relief administration.
Created 1933 to give quick relief to the hungry and homeless


What did the FERA do? (Spending and what for)

$500 million spent on providing soup kitchens and clothing and setting up a employment schemes


What was the CWA and what was its aim and when was it set up

Civil works Administration aimed to provide as many jobs as possible in the short term between the winter of 1933 to 34


How many jobs were created by the CWA and how were they created

4 million jobs created on projects such as building and improving roads, schools, airports and other public installations.
People paid to sweep leaves in parks and fighting pigeons from building.


What was the PWA, when set up and what was it aims

The public works Administration set up in 1933 aim to organise large-scale work schemes that would be of lasting value to Americans. Including building schools, hospitals, Dams, bridges and battleships


What improvements did the PWA also direct

Improvements in sewage and drainage systems.


Was there PWA successful, who got the jobs

Only for people who were skilled workers rather than from the millions who lacked skill or trade


What was that WPA when was it set up and what was it aim

The Works progress administration set up 1935 to help those in need of jobs who lacked in skill or trade and did not benefit from the PWA


What did the WPA do. Two things

Smaller scale schemes of the PWA - of building roads, schools and other public buildings.
Also mainly gave work to writers, artists, actors and photographers.


Give example of what unemployed writers are paid to do

Paid to write a series of guidebooks on American states and cities


How many actors were paid to tour the country and perform plays by the WPA



How many Americans gained work from the WPA each year

2 million


What was the CCC and what were its aims

Their civilian conservation corps
More than one aim
- provided work
- also helped agriculture and environment


Who specifically did this CCC give work to and describe these people

Single, unemployed young men between the ages of 18 and 25 and for a limited period-usually six months


What did the CCC employees do and where did they live

Lived in camps in the countryside, they planted trees to stop soil erosion, cleared land, created forests and made reservoirs.


What did the CCC give the employees in return for the labour

Gave them food, clothing and shelter, and pocket money of one dollar a day.


By 1938 how many young people had served CCC

Over 2 million young people


What did critics say about the CCC

They said that Americans were amounting to cheap labour


What did many young men gain from working with this CCC

They learn skills which later allowed them to get a job


What was the HOLC and what were its aims

The Home Owners Loan Corporation

help people who are having difficulty meeting their mortgage payments


What did the government do through the HOLC

The government lent money to people at low interest rates to prevent them from losing their homes


What was the TVA and what were its aims

The Tennesee Valley Authority

Set up to improve the whole area of the Tennesee Valley


What was the problem with the Tennessee river

It flooded in spring, washing away good soil, and almost dried up in summer, causing dust bowl conditions

River ran through several different American States so it was difficult to get a common agreement on what actions to take to solve the problem.

Result = people of TV lived in poverty


What did Roosevelt call the Tennessee Valley

The nation's number one economic problem


What did the TVA do (three and results of these)

•forests planted to stop soil erosion
•power stations built at dams to provide cheap electricity for homes and industry
•dams built to control river and prevent flooding
•dams = lakes which were used for water transport, and sporting and measure facilities


How many dams were built to control the river and prevent flooding in the Tennessee Valley



What attracted industries to the Tennessee Valley

Cheap power and good transport


How many jobs were created by the TVA



What was the result of the TVA on the land of the Tennessee Valley

The land became fertile again


What are the five points of the cycle of recovery

• gov speeds money on AlphaA's
• more jobs
• more money spend on goods
• increased demand for goods
• increased production