Flashcards in The New Deal Deck (56):
Between what dates was the election victory of Roosevelt
November 1932 and Roosevelt taking office in March 1933
What was the period between these dates called, Before Roosevelt took office in March 1933, and what did this period entail
Lame-duck months. It is when the new Administration is not yet in place-Roosevelt worked out the new deal in greater detail
What theories did Roosevelt adopt - of a British men named who and what was this mans occupation
The British economist J.M.Keynes: that's the way to end the depression was to put money in peoples pockets
What would Roosevelts Theory do?
Increase spending, which would stimulate industry and thereby kickstart the new cycle of prosperity
What did the new deal require
Massive state involvement in the economy and then setting up of government-controlled agencies
What was so significant about Roosevelts authority. What did Congress grant him?
He was given the authority to do with the new deal when congress granted him emergency powers-the sort of powers he would have had if the USA have been at war
When did Roosevelt set up the alphabet agencies
During the first hundred days in office
Why were the agencies called alphabet agencies to the people
People found it easier to remember them by their initials than by their full names
What was a result of Roosevelt realising the need to explain to the American people what he was doing
He set up fireside chats this resulted in the Americans having trust and confidence in his measures and in the recovery of the economy
What did Roosevelt say when he was sworn in as president
'the only thing we have to fear is fear itself'
How did Roosevelt perform the fireside chats. Give how they were broadcast how many Americans listen to them and what the aims were.
Broadcast over radio to reach a large audience of millions of Americans and to talk directly to them. He sat in a chair by a fire in his office he explains in simple terms why USA falling into depression and what he proposed to do to end it
The broadcasts were hugely successful-give an example of the most successful Fireside chat and what this chat dealt with
The first Fireside chat was especially successful because it dealt with the banking crisis which affected nearly all Americans
When did Roosevelt introduced an emergency banking act
What was the emergency banking act
It meant all banks were closed for four days.
During then gov officials inspected accounts of every bank.
Only banks properly managed allowed to be open and those supported by government loans
What was the result of the emergency banking act? Give 2
1.savers kept account open
2.customers who had withdrawn their money even started to get it back into their accounts
--> banking crisis over
When was the Glass-Steagull act past and by who
June 1933 by the government
What did the Glass-Steagull Act do?
Stopped banks speculating with their customers money By insisting that savings banks could not also be investment banks
What did the glass-Steagull act forbid
It forbade banks to own other finance companies and gave the US federal reserve the right to set interest rates.
What did the rules on the GS act improve
The honesty and stability of the US banking system
When was the AAA set up and what was its long name
May 1933. Called the agricultural adjustment administration
What did the AAA do
Helped farmers increase their income by paying to produce less food = Food prices go up farmers income increases
What was the effect on farmers incomes by the aaa in the period up to 1939
Farmers incomes double
How did the AAA failed to help farmworkers
Many were evicted as there was less work for them to do
What did Roosevelt set up in an attempt to help both sides of industry-employers and workers
The national recovery Administration (NRA)
What did NRA do? (Three points)
• employers and businessmen invited to follow codes fixing fair prices for goods being sold
• emps + busmen agreed to fair conditions - minimum wages, max hours of work, forbade child labour and cheap sweated labour
• businesses that signed NRA code could advertise Blue Eagal Emblem with motto 'we do our part' - Americans encouraged to buy blue eagle goods
What were the result of the NRA
End of 1933 2 million employers, employing 22 million workers had agreed to the codes
What was the FERA and when was it created and what was it aim
Federal emergency relief administration.
Created 1933 to give quick relief to the hungry and homeless
What did the FERA do? (Spending and what for)
$500 million spent on providing soup kitchens and clothing and setting up a employment schemes
What was the CWA and what was its aim and when was it set up
Civil works Administration aimed to provide as many jobs as possible in the short term between the winter of 1933 to 34
How many jobs were created by the CWA and how were they created
4 million jobs created on projects such as building and improving roads, schools, airports and other public installations.
People paid to sweep leaves in parks and fighting pigeons from building.
What was the PWA, when set up and what was it aims
The public works Administration set up in 1933 aim to organise large-scale work schemes that would be of lasting value to Americans. Including building schools, hospitals, Dams, bridges and battleships
What improvements did the PWA also direct
Improvements in sewage and drainage systems.
Was there PWA successful, who got the jobs
Only for people who were skilled workers rather than from the millions who lacked skill or trade
What was that WPA when was it set up and what was it aim
The Works progress administration set up 1935 to help those in need of jobs who lacked in skill or trade and did not benefit from the PWA
What did the WPA do. Two things
Smaller scale schemes of the PWA - of building roads, schools and other public buildings.
Also mainly gave work to writers, artists, actors and photographers.
Give example of what unemployed writers are paid to do
Paid to write a series of guidebooks on American states and cities
How many actors were paid to tour the country and perform plays by the WPA
How many Americans gained work from the WPA each year
What was the CCC and what were its aims
Their civilian conservation corps
More than one aim
- provided work
- also helped agriculture and environment
Who specifically did this CCC give work to and describe these people
Single, unemployed young men between the ages of 18 and 25 and for a limited period-usually six months
What did the CCC employees do and where did they live
Lived in camps in the countryside, they planted trees to stop soil erosion, cleared land, created forests and made reservoirs.
What did the CCC give the employees in return for the labour
Gave them food, clothing and shelter, and pocket money of one dollar a day.
By 1938 how many young people had served CCC
Over 2 million young people
What did critics say about the CCC
They said that Americans were amounting to cheap labour
What did many young men gain from working with this CCC
They learn skills which later allowed them to get a job
What was the HOLC and what were its aims
The Home Owners Loan Corporation
help people who are having difficulty meeting their mortgage payments
What did the government do through the HOLC
The government lent money to people at low interest rates to prevent them from losing their homes
What was the TVA and what were its aims
The Tennesee Valley Authority
Set up to improve the whole area of the Tennesee Valley
What was the problem with the Tennessee river
It flooded in spring, washing away good soil, and almost dried up in summer, causing dust bowl conditions
River ran through several different American States so it was difficult to get a common agreement on what actions to take to solve the problem.
Result = people of TV lived in poverty
What did Roosevelt call the Tennessee Valley
The nation's number one economic problem
What did the TVA do (three and results of these)
•forests planted to stop soil erosion
•power stations built at dams to provide cheap electricity for homes and industry
•dams built to control river and prevent flooding
•dams = lakes which were used for water transport, and sporting and measure facilities
How many dams were built to control the river and prevent flooding in the Tennessee Valley
What attracted industries to the Tennessee Valley
Cheap power and good transport
How many jobs were created by the TVA
What was the result of the TVA on the land of the Tennessee Valley
The land became fertile again