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Flashcards in Summery Race Relations and events Deck (41):

Give 4 reasons why Brown versus Topeka was start of civil rights movement

1. segregation was officially unconstitutional
2.major victory for black activists-led to Little Rock, Deseg, bussing
3. NAACP achieved legal victories, and CORE had begun to test those by direct action
4.increased Black confidence and activism


Give 4 freasons why Brown versus Topeka was not the start of the civil rights movement immediate effect-ignored or resisted
2. Provoked KKK/extremist reaction/violence
3.did not involve civil rights movement tactics-direct action, civil disobedience, mass protest
4. Black awareness had been growing since Harlem Renaissance


Give 4 points that support that there have been a lot of progress made by 1960 successes-brown V Topeka
2.government action-Truman and Eisenhower
3.bus boycott-first mass protest/direct action
4.growing confidence-new negro


Give three examples that say that not much progress had been made by 1960

1.little change (voter registration/segregation)
2.opposition-KKK/till/parks sacked
3. new negro only in Harlem Renaissance


Give seven reasons why civil rights movement was so successful in early years of the 1960s

1.NAACP established fact that the blacks were legally in the right negro attitude made mass protest
3.figurehead leadership of Martin Luther King
4.right principle (non-violence) and tactics (direct action/single issues) to gain public support
5. Government support-prepared to enforce laws
6.KKK/violence created public support
7.TV publicity created public awareness


When did King decide to use tactic of large marches at Birmingham, Alabama



Why did MLK choose Birmingham

Because of reputation for racism (had even banned a book which showed a black and white rabbits)
Towns police Chief 'Bull' Connor known to be hot-headed


What did King call Birmingham

The most segregated city in America


What did King demand in Birmingham

Desegregation of eating places and employment of black sales staff


What was Kings non-violence campaign named



What did project-C mean

Project confrontation


How did the Birmingham demonstrations begin

Sit-ins at lunch counters in downtown stores and marches, during one king arrested


How strong was the initial support for king in Birmingham

Very poor


Because of poor support what did King do on May 3

He recruited a thousand schoolchildren to join one of the marchers


How did the police attack the March

Attacked with Waterhouses, dogs and batons


Was the Birmingham March televised

Media outcry


What happened to king after the Birmingham March

He was thrown into solitarily confinement


What did they KKK do to King after their Birmingham March

KKK bombed motel room (shortly after state troopers guarding it mysteriously left)


What is the result of King motel being bombed

Black rioted and government was forced to step in


What was the result of the government stepping in to stop the black riots

These city authorities gave in and desegregated restaurants and soon after all Council facilities


What was the result of the TV images of the brave non-violent protesters being attacked by police and racists

There was a huge groundswell of middle-class support


When did King organise The 'I had a dream' speech Washington March

August 1963 (28th)


How many people marched on Washington in August

A quarter of 1 million people (including at least 75,000 white supporters)


Where was Martin Luther Kings I had a dream speech performed

In front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington


How many people watched M LK speech live on television



How did M LK finish this speech

by looking forward to the time when black Americans, in the words of the Negro spiritual, would be 'free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!'


By the end of 1963 or what had king become

The leader of the civil rights movement


What did King prove

He could manipulate the media and was the most famous civil rights campaigner


Why did the government support King at the end of 1963

Because it's realised he was more moderate than other campaigners


When did King go to Selma, Alabama



Who was the sheriff of Selma Alabama

Jim Clark


What did King know about non-violent protest

That they make people inflict violence on you

They then gain bad publicity and destroy their own case


When was bloody Sunday

Seventh of March 1965


What happened on bloody Sunday

Brutality against the marchers were such that there was a national outrage when it was shown on television


It was the president of America in 1965

Lyndon Johnson


Why did king choose to go to Selma Alabama

Its sheriff, Jim Clark, could be relied on to get violent


What was one of the reasons why Pres Lyndon Johnson's voting rights act was passed through Congress in August 1965

The public outcry


Give seven examples of how Martin Luther King was very different from the black power leaders

1.advocated violence/M LK non-violent power expelled white members/M LK wanted striped power and had white supporters
3.they were nationalist (NOI) or wanted social action/MLK concentrated civil rights
4.CORE - freedom houses and Atlanta project/M LK not welcome or successful in Chicago
5.king believes had failed-day of violence
6.King clash with Carmichael on Meredith March
7.Malcom X called King fool (MLK calls nation of islam a hate group)


Give five examples of how Martin Luther King wasn't different from black power leaders

1. M LK horrified by deprivation in watts
2.M LK lives in Chicago in 1966
3. where do we go from here advocated affirmative social action
4. M LK opposed to Vietnam war
5. M LK with anti-retaliation, that he provoked violence (project C in Birmingham/Selma)


Give six example how Martin Luther King made a major contribution to the civil rights movement

2.setup SCLC, organise protests
3.achieved high profile successes-Montgomerie, Birmingham, Thelma
4.debt principles of early movement-nonviolence, mass protest, direct action
5.developed tactics-single issue/provoke violent reaction
6.spectacle-I have a dream speech


Give 4 examples of why Martin Luther King did not make a major contribution to the civil right movement

1.others: chickens and feeling ride initiated by CORE/SNCC; N a ACPs legal breakthroughs
2. kings principles/tactics were inappropriate for the ghettos
3.after 1965 new leaders, new tactics (self-defensive riots), new principal (black power)
4.achieved political, not social economic rights