Flashcards in Prosperity Deck (82):
When was the volstead act
When did the USA enter the war
How many Americans died in ww1
How did the USA do well from the war
Euro countries paid the USA to provide food, raw materials and weapons
Why did the USA adopt a mood of isolation (give three)
• war was a remote conflict
• had been fought thousands of miles away over issues that did not concern their country
• no more soldiers being killed trying to keep peace
What party did woodrow Wilson belong to?
The Democratic Party
Who were the democrats opponents and who was the leader of this party?
Led by Henry Cabot Lodge
What did some American historians decide about the start of ww1 (think Germany and Britain)
Thought Germany had not started the war.
'German atrocities' had been cooked up by 'British propaganda'
Why were isolationist policies viewed as bad? (Think hitler)
They were responsible for allowing the rise of Hitler (weakened LoN)
What happened in 1920 America?
There was a period of economic prosperity
What was the increase of motor cars on American roads between 1920-29
9 million to 26 million
What was the increase of telephones from 20-29
13 million to 20 million
What did economic growth create?
A cycle of prosperity
Describe the 4 stages of the cycle of prosperity
1) increased demand for consumer goods
2) increased production
3) increased employment
4) more money available to spend on consumer goods
What industry was among the first to use assembly lines
The motor car industry
Who was the pioneer of the method of using assembly lines in the motor car industry and what was his big idea
To make a motor car for the ordinary man and his family
What was fords assembly line motor car called, and what was its nick name?
The Model T
The Tin Lizzie
When was the first model T produced
By the 1920s how long did it take to make a Model T
How much did the Model T cost in 1911 and how much in 1920
1911 - $850
1920 - $295
How did the car industry expand and help other industries grow?
Bc steel rubber glass leather and oil were all in greater demand bc of it.
The construction industry bc roads for new traffic
How did the American industry grow during ww1
USA sold food and weapons to Europe with no competition from euro countries
What new production techniques did the American industry develop?
• mass production = economies of scale
• assembly line = one specific task, quick and cheap
• time and motion studies = improved efficiency
How could people buy consumer goods more easily
By new credit facilities.
ESP. Hire purchase
What is hire purchase
This allowed a buyer to pay for something in instalments over a period of time
Why did advertisements help the boom
Bc they were everywhere, and encouraged people to 'keep up with the Joneses'
How did the introduction of mail ordering help the boom
It extended the market for consumer goods beyond towns and cities
How did Government Policy fuel the boom?
Republican gov encouraged the growth of business by a policy of non-interference in the economy. (Laissez-faire)
What does laissez-faire mean
'Leave things alone'
What else did the gov do in terms of taxes and what result did this have on the people
Lowered taxes on income and company profits.
- more money to spend consumer goods and invest in new factories and buildings
How did the government protect us industry and what was this called
By placing tariffs on foreign goods coming into the USA.
What does protectionism mean
A policy of putting tariffs on imported goods, making those goods more expensive and encouraged to buy domestic (home soil) goods instead
How did stocks and shares for US businesses help the boom in USA
Ordinary people began to buy them
How much did share prices rise from 1921-29
Before the First World War what did Americans believe in (think tariffs)
Low tariffs to encourage world trade bc they wanted to trade with the rest of the world
Why were higher tariffs introduced
• isolationist attitudes
• American business boom wanted to be continued
• American wages high, euro firms may pay lower wages so goods would be cheaper.
• overproduction of farming, no euro grain plz! Want prices to stay high
When did warren Harding pass the Emergency Tariff Act
When was the Fordney-McCumber Tariff passed?
What were the two main elements of the F-M tariff
• the scientific tariff
• the American Selling Price
What did the scientific tariff do?
Place higher tariffs on goods coming from countries with low wages
What did the American Selling Price do?
Adjusted tariffs so the selling price on imported goods was always higher than selling price of US goods
What was the average import duty after the F-M tariff
How high was duty on some imported items after the F-M tariff?
Who most prospered from high tariffs
Farmers and factories
How did high tariffs affect poor people
Made life more difficult as couldn't afford US products but could afford imported food before the tariffs were set In place
How did high tariffs affect American firms
Protected from foreign competition
Wage rises = expensive to produce goods
What did Joseph Fordney claim about tariffs?
Tariffs would protect American jobs - by requiring American citizens to buy more American goods, they would guarantee American jobs
What did other countries start doing in response to high tariffs in America and why was this bad?
They put high tariffs too
American businesses ESP agriculture sector relied on exports - high tariffs abroad would be disastrous
Where does economic prosperity come from
What was caused by blocking trade
High tariffs worldwide damaged the global economy and helped cause the Great Depression
Why was the entertainment industry so successful in general (think young Americans)
Young Americans in 1920s wanted to have fun. They had money in their pockets and the ent ind gave them great was to spend it
What genre of music came about in the 1920s and from where
Jazz developed from early African American musical forms
Give a name of a night club where jazz was played
New Yorks Cotton Club
Two of the most famous black musicians?
What was a genre of music that was popular in the 20s
Name a black guitarist who played blues
What is a phonograph
An early 1920s record player
From 1920 - 29 what was the increase in the number of homes with radios?
1920 - 60,000
1929 - 10 million
How did local and national radio stations make money
By advertising on their shows
What was the effect of radio advertisements
People hear about consumer goods on radio, and go and buy them.
--> American business boomed
By 1929 how many Americans were going to the movies each week?
What were silent films - what did you need for them to be effective (think music and words)
Words shown on screen
Cinemas employed piano players to provide background music
When was the first talkie and what was it called and who acted in it
Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer
What was a talkie
A movie with a soundtrack
When were coloured films being produced
Where were most films made. Exactly.
District of LA.
Pacific state of California
Give names of three leading movie companies in 1920s
How many films would a leading movie company make each year
Give names of thee international film stars made by the movie industry
When did Rudolph Valentino die and who was he
A movie heart-throb
Thousands fans attend funeral
What was a result of the traumatic events of ww1 effecting young people
They rejected convention and just wanted to have fun.
They rebelled social rules and purposefully controversial and decadent
Why was the roaring twenties called what it is
Because of the pace of social life in the twenties
Name one old fashioned dance and three dances that became popular in the 20s
Charleston, tango, bunny hug
Why did jazz appeal to young Americans
Bc the music itself was wild and dramatic.
Also bc product of black Americans, jazz was therefore controversial and daring
Describe a flapper
Short bobbed hair
Flat chested and wore skirt to knee
Lipstick and rouge on face
Smoked cigarettes, drove Tin Lizzie
What did young men wear in the 20s
Spats on shoes
What were spats
A cloth cover for the ankle and instep on shoe
What did the Anti Flirt Association do?
Tried to control the excesses of the young
Distributed badges and organise speeches
Who was the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic and when was this
Name two other famous personalities in the 20's
How many Tin Lizzies were driving out Henry Fords Detroit factory every minute?