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Flashcards in Increasing Racialisation Deck (57):
0

When did black American movements which are much more radical and violent emerge

During the 1960s

1

What seemed irrelevant to blacks living in the poor areas of American cities

M LK and his civil rights successes in the south

2

What was lifelike to the black living in the poor areas of American cities

There was poverty, deprivation and unemployment-These were rife

3

How many black youths were unemployed in Chicago's gettos

About 70%

4

What did poor housing in the ghettos lead to

Violence and crime

5

What percentage of ghetto children finished high school

32%

6

What could you describe the ghettos as

A powder-keg waiting to explode

7

In what year was there a clumsy and brutal attempt by police to arrest who?

1965 police attempted to arrest a black drunk driver

8

What was the result of the police arrest of black drunk driver

Riots in the watts area of Los Angeles

9

Between 1964 and 1968 how many riots were there and in how many US cities

238 riots in more than 200 cities

10

How many people died in the riots and how did most die

250 deaths many from police shootings

11

How much damage was done after the riots ( dollars worth)

Billions of dollars worth

12

What type of campaigners of the SCLC and NAACP not know

The middle-class campaigners new little of the ghetto world

13

Who was working in the ghettos

Black activists

14

What happened after 1964 in terms of the CORE (what did they do)

CORE workers rented Freedom houses in northern ghettos, from which they distributed information on education, employment, health and housing

15

What happened in 1966 with the SNCC (what did they mount)

They mounted The Atlanta project

A group of SNCC students cleared waste areas, publish newsletter called Nitty-gritty to denounce 'White lies' in the press and persuaded local blacks to vote in elections

16

What was the nation of Islam

A black Muslim movement formed in 1930

Nationalists and separatist

Solution to problems of black Americans was returned to Africa or separate American States in South US

17

What did it King label the nation of Islam as

A hate group

18

What did NAACP leader Thurgood Marshall call the nation of Islam

A bunch of thugs

19

How many members did the nation of Islam have by 1970

250,000

20

Who were two of the famous members of the nation of Islam

Muhammad Ali-world champion boxer
Malcom X-black activist

21

Who was Malcom X

Vigourous and aggressive man who joined nation of Islam while in prison for drug-dealing

22

How did it Malcom X present himself

As the alternative to Dr King

23

What did Malcolm X think of M LK

That he was a fool

24

What did Malcom X argue about white policies in contrast to mlk

White apologies often (Americans with no alternative but violence

Also rejected Kings turn the other cheek nonviolence approach

25

When did Malcom X become famous. (After something)

After 1959 TV documentary, the hate that hate produced

26

When was Malcom X suspended from the nation of Islam and why

In 1964 after appearing to welcome the assassination of Pres Kennedy

27

What did Malcolm X do after he was suspended

He renounced the nation of Islam

28

When was Malcom X's new York home firebombed

1964

29

When was Malcom X assassinated and by who

1965 by a nation of Islam gunman

30

What did Malcolm X do because of his death (three results)


1.became role model for angry young blacks
2. forced America's black leaders to refocus their attention away from civil and legal rights and instead on social and economic conditions
3. Introduced idea of violence as legitimate a tactic

31

At CORE and SNCC work in ghettos what happened to them

They became more radicalised-politics became more left-wing/socialist

tactics became more racially charged and violence

32

In what year did SNCC choose who as a leader and then EXspells all white members

1966 chose Stokely Carmichael

33

What did Carmichael believe

Nonviolence was not the right approach and instead advocated self defence

34

What phrase did Carmichael bring in

Black power

35

When did Carmichael bring the phrase black power to the public attention

When he shouted it out at a speech in Greenwood, Mississippi, after the Meredith March

36

In the year after Carmichael brought in the phrase black power who succeeded him

H.Rap Brown

37

What did H.Rap brown encourage

Encouraged poor black people to see the white shops and thus directly cause a number of ghetto riots that year

38

When did Floyd McKissick take over CORE

1966

39

What did Floyd McKissick do and when

Expelled its white members in 1968

40

What views did McKissick have

He rejected nonviolence

41

When was the most famous expression of black power shown

During the 1968 Mexico City Olympics

42

What happened at the 1968 Mexico City Olympics (who were medal winners) and what did they do

Tommy Smith and John Carlos raise their fists in a black power salute
MSmith wore black scarf symbolism-Black pride

Carlos wore beads in memory of black slaves and victims of lynchings

43

What were John Carlos and Tommy Smith members of

The Olympic project for human rights

44

When was the Olympic project for human rights founded and what was its aim

Founded in 1967 to protest against discrimination against blacks in sport

45

What and when did Huey Newton form as a response to police brutality in the watts riots

The black panther party in 1966

46

What were some of the points in the black panther party's 10 point programme

Land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace

-Some demands

47

At its height how many members did the black panther party have

5000 members organised into 30 chapters

48

In what years did the black panther party temporarily merge with the SNCC

1968 to 69

49

Who did the black panther party forge links with

Communist Freedom fighters all over the world

50

What did the black panther party setup in Los Angeles (give four)

Set up health clinics and an ambulance and gave free breakfasts to ghetto children

Also attacked police

51

What would black panther patrols do - think police

They would shadow police patrols

52

What would happen if the police started harassing black Americans

The Panthers would help the blacks

53

When were a number of black panthers shot notably

In a gun battle that followed the Ambush of a police patrol in 1968

54

In response to their ambush of a police patrol in 1968 what did California decide to do

Decided that it would recruit policemen in proportion to the size of the black and white population in the state

55

What did the FBI label the black panthers as

A black nationalist hate group

56

By what year had the black panther movement fizzled out and why

By 1970 because leaders were targeted and jailed by FBI