Flashcards in Respiratory COPY Deck (78)
What are the clinical features of lung sarcoidosis?
2.) Elevated serum ACE
i.) The granulomas may activate vitamin D (activates 1 alpha hydroxylase)
Why is a tension pneumothorax a medical emergency?
The pressure from a tension pneumothorax may interfere normal heart function
What is the typical sequela of asbestos inhalation?
What is the cause of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome?
Inadequate surfactant levels (because the Type-II pneumocytes are deficient)
Type-II pneumocytes have 2 functions: i.) produces surfactant; ii.) stem cell for lung
What are the 3 risk factors associated with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?
i.) Vaginal birth is a stressful period for the infant. The stress results in a release of glucocorticoids that stimulate surfactant
3.) Maternal Diabetes
i.) Hyperinsulinemia suppresses surfactant release
What is the primary preventative strategy for suspected infant respiratory distress syndrome?
If the mother goes into labour prematurely the infant will be at a greater risk of IRDS. The mother will be given glucocorticoids to speed the production of surfactant in the neonate
What prompts the destruction of alveoli in emphysema?
An imbalance of preteases and antiproteases (Alpha-1-antitrypsin)
1.) Smoking (m/c cause of emphysema) prompts excessive release of proteases
2.) Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (relatively rare)
Allergens associated with asthma induce a Th2 phenotype in CD4+ T Cells that results in the release of what cytokines? What do each of the respective cytokines do?
i.) Allows plasma cells to class switch to IgE
a.) Activates mast cells leading to inflammation
b.) Perpetuates bronchoconstriction
2.) IL-5 (Calls in Eosinophils)
i.) Inhibits Th1 & promotes Th2 response (potentiates the asthma reaction)
What is heard on auscultation of a patient with pleuritis?
In atelectasis, what direction does the trachea shift?
If a patient is given a bronchodilator and the wheeze has not improved, what are your 3 DDxs?
1.) Foreign Body
What is status asthmaticus?
Status asthmaticus is an acute exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to standard treatments. Symptoms include: chest tightness, rapidly progressive dyspnea (shortness of breath), dry cough, use of accessory muscles, laboured breathing, and extreme wheezing. It is a life-threatening episode of airway obstruction considered a medical emergency.
When do you typically see exudative pleural effusion?
When do you typically see transudative pleural effusion?
Congestive Heart Failure
what direction does the trachea shift from a pneumothroax?
Ipsilateral to a spontaneous pneumothorax (rupture of the emphysematous bleb)
Contralateral to a tension pneumothorax (trauma)
1.) What is the cause of Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)?
2.) Describe the symptoms of IRDS
1.) Cause = immature lung structure and/or insufficient surfactant causing hyaline membrane disease. It most commonly occurs in premature neonates
i.) Tachypnea & Tachycardia
ii.) Chest wall retraction
iii.) Expiratory grunting with nasal flaring
What electrolyte is significantly elevated in the sweat of a patient with cystic fibrosis?
Chloride > 80 meq/L