S's in Glossary Flashcards Preview

PSY 100 > S's in Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in S's in Glossary Deck (72):
1

savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill

2

scapegoat theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

3

scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots

4

schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets info

5

schizophrenia

a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished, inappropriate emotional expression

6

secondary sex characteristics

non-reproductive sexual characteristics

7

selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

8

self

assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions

9

self-actualization

one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's own potential

10

self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves

11

self-control

the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards

12

self-disclosure

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

13

self-esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

14

self-serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably

15

sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

16

sensorimotor stage

the stage (from birth to about 2 years old) during which infants mostly know the world in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities; Piaget

17

sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves

18

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

19

sensory cortex

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

20

sensory interaction

the principle that one sense may influence another

21

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory info into the memory system

22

sensory neurons

neurons that carry incoming info from the sensory receptors to the brain and the spinal cord

23

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items on a list

24

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set.

25

sexual dysfunction

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

26

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward either members of one's own sex or the other sex

27

sexual response cycle

the 4 stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson -- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

28

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level based on structure or appearance of words

29

shaping

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

30

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly before info is stored or forgetten

31

signal detection theory

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of faint stimulus amid background stimulation

32

sleep

periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness

33

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

34

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

35

social exchange theory

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

36

social facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

37

social identity

the "we" aspect of our self-concept

38

social leadership

group-orientated leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

39

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behaviors by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

40

social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

41

social psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

42

social script

culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations

43

social trap

a situation in which the conflicting parties become caught in mutually destructive behavior

44

social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context

45

social-responsibility norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them

46

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

47

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (source amnesia and misinformation effect are the heart of false memories)

48

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

49

split brain

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them

50

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response

51

spotlight effect

overestimating other's noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

52

SQ3R

a study method incorporating 5 steps: survey, question, read, retrieve, review

53

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

54

standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

55

Standford-Binet

the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test

56

statistical signifance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

57

stereotype

a generalized belief about a group of people

58

stereotype threat

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype

59

stimulants

drugs that excite neural activity and speed up bodily functions (caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ectasy, and meth)

60

stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a response

61

storage

the retention of encoded info over time

62

stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers tat infants commonly display, beginning around 8 months old

63

structured interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales

64

subjective well-being

self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life

65

subliminal

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

66

substance use disorder

continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk

67

superego

the part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations

68

subordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

69

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group

70

sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

71

synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

72

systematic desensitization

a type of therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli