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PSY 100 > P's in Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in P's in Glossary Deck (60):
1

panic disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or the frightening sensations

2

parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions; including vision

3

paraphilas

experiencing sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving non-human objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or nonconsenting

4

parapsychology

the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis

5

parasympathetic nervous system

the division of autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

6

parietal lobe

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position

7

parietal (intermittent) reinforcement

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction that does continuous reinforcement

8

passionate love

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

9

perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory info, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

10

perceptual adaption

the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

11

perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change

12

perceptual set

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

13

peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

14

peripheral route persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues

15

personal control

the extent to which people perceive control over the environment rather than feeling helpless

16

personality disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

17

personality inventory

a questionnaire used to assess personality traits

18

personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

19

personnel psychology

a subfield on I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

20

PET (positron emission tomography)

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

21

phi phenomenon

an illusion of movement created when 2 or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

22

phobia

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation

23

phoneme

the smallest distinctive unit of sound

24

pitch

a tone's experienced highness or lowness, depends on frequency

25

pituitary gland

the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other other endocrine glands

26

place theory

the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

27

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent

28

plasticity

the brain's ability to change by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

29

population

all the cases in a group being studied

30

positive psychology

the scientific study of human functioning, with goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive

31

positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers

32

posthypnotic suggestion

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

33

post-traumatic growth

positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises

34

PTSD

a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

35

predictive validity

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict

36

prejudice

an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members

37

preoperational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2 to 6 or 7) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

38

primary reinforcer

an innately reinforcing stimulus

39

primary sex characteristics

the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible

40

priming

the activation of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

41

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info

42

projective test

a personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

43

prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior

44

prototype

a mental image or best example of a category

45

psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders

46

psychoactive drugs

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods

47

psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts

48

psychodynamic theories

view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences

49

psychodynamic therapy

therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences

50

psychological disorder

a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior

51

psychology

the science of behavior and mental processes

52

psychopharmacology

the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

53

psychophysics

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them

54

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which the id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

55

psychosis

a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

56

psychosurgery

surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior

57

psychotherapy

treatment involving psychological techniques

58

puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproduction

59

punishment

an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows

60

pupil

the adjustable opening at the center of the eye though which light enters