A's in glossary Flashcards Preview

PSY 100 > A's in glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in A's in glossary Deck (42):
1

absolute threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.

2

accommodation (development)

adapting our current understandings to incorporate new info.

3

accommodation (eyes)

the process by which the eye's lens change shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.

4

achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment, for mastery of skills or ideas, and for rapidly attaining a high standard.

5

achievement test

a test designed to assess what a person has learned.

6

acquisition

In classic conditioning, the initial stage when one links a neural stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus beings triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.

7

action potential

a neural impulse or a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.

8

active listening

empathic listening which the listener restates and clarifies. featured in Rogers' client-centered therapy.

9

addiction

compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors despite known adverse consequences.

10

adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.

11

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress.

12

aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.

13

alcohol use disorder

alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal, and a drive to continue problematic use.

14

algorithm

a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.

15

alpha waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.

16

altruism

unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

17

amphetamines

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associate energy and mood changes.

18

amygdala

two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system, linked to emotion.

19

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a person maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly underweight.

20

anterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories.

21

antianxiety drugs

drugs used to control anxiety and agitation

22

antidepressant drugs

drugs used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD.

23

antipsychotic drugs

drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder.

24

antisocial personality disorder

a personality disorder in which a person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even towards friends and family.

25

anxiety disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

26

aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area.

27

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

28

aptitude test

a test designed to predict a person's future performance.

29

assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.

30

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.

31

associative learning

learning that certain events occur together.

32

attachment

an emotional tie with another person.

33

ADHD

a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms; extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

34

attitude

feelings that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.

35

attribution theory

the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either their situation or the person's disposition.

36

audition

the sense or act of hearing.

37

autism spectrum disorder

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors.

38

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental info (space, time, frequency) and of well learned info (word meanings)

39

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of internal organs. Sympathetic division arouses and parasympathetic division calms.

40

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory.

41

aversive conditioning

a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior.

42

axon

the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons, muscles, or glands.