C's in the glossary Flashcards Preview

PSY 100 > C's in the glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in C's in the glossary Deck (52):
1

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

2

central nervous system (CNS)

the brain and the spinal cord.

3

central route persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.

4

cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.

5

cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

6

change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment

7

chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

8

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

9

circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.

10

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

11

client-centered therapy

a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within genuine, accepting, emphatic environment to facilitate client's growth.

12

clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.

13

cochlea

a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear, sound waves traveling through cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses

14

cochlear implant

a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.

15

cognition

the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

16

cognitive dissonance theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent.

17

cognitive learning

the acquisition of mental info, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.

18

cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment

19

cognitive-behavioral therapy

a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy.

20

cohort

a group of people from a given time period

21

collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

22

collectivism

giving priority to goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly.

23

color constancy

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.

24

community psychology

a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.

25

companionate love

the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

26

concept

a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.

27

concrete operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.

28

conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer

29

conditioned response (CR)

a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus

30

conditioned stimulus (CS)

an originally irrelevant stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response.

31

conduction hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.

32

cones

retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

33

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for info that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.

34

conflict

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.

35

conformity

adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

36

confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

37

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

38

conservation

the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.

39

content validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.

40

continuous reinforcement

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

41

control group

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

42

corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

43

correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factor vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

44

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things

45

counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems living and in achieving greater well-being.

46

counter conditioning

a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors.

47

creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

48

critical period

an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

49

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

50

cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

51

crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, tends to increase with age

52

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.