Flashcards in C's in the glossary Deck (52):
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and the spinal cord.
central route persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
failing to notice changes in the environment
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within genuine, accepting, emphatic environment to facilitate client's growth.
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear, sound waves traveling through cochlear fluid trigger nerve impulses
a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent.
the acquisition of mental info, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language.
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy.
a group of people from a given time period
Carl Jung's concept of shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
giving priority to goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly.
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
conditioned response (CR)
a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
an originally irrelevant stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response.
conduction hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
a tendency to search for info that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
a measure of the extent to which two factor vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
a statistical index of the relationship between two things
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems living and in achieving greater well-being.
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors.
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, tends to increase with age