E's in Glossary Flashcards Preview

PSY 100 > E's in Glossary > Flashcards

Flashcards in E's in Glossary Deck (30):
1

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

2

eclectic approach

an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.

3

ecstasy (MDMA)

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin producing neurons and to mood and cognition

4

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

5

ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the reality, superego, and id. brings pleasure rather than pain

6

egocentrism

in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

7

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent though the brain of an anesthetized patient.

8

electroencephalogram (EEG)

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface; waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

9

embodied cognition

the influence of bodily, sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgments.

10

embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

11

emerging adulthood

for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

12

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

13

empirically derived test

a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

14

encoding

the processing of info into the memory system

15

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

16

endorphins

"morphine within"-- natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

17

environment

every non genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.

18

epigenetics

the study of influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

19

equity

a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

20

estrogens

sex hormones, such a estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics.

21

evidence-based practice

clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.

22

evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

23

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.

24

experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment to one version of the independent variable.

25

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

26

exposure therapies

behavioral techniques that treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid

27

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.

28

extinction

the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an US does not follow a CS; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.

29

extrasensory perception (ESP)

the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.

30

extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment