Flashcards in Sexually transmitted diseases Deck (44)
What diseases present in the throat?
chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis
What disease present in the mouth?
herpes, HIV, HPV
What does chlamydia infect?
Infects mucosal epithelium
What is the incubation period for chlamydia?
1 - 4 weeks
What is the % of people who dont show any symptoms for chlamydia?
What happens if chlamydia infects the uterus and fallopian tubes?
Leads to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
What is the % of people who get PID following endocervical injection?
What does PID cause?
Infertility or ectopic pregnancies
What measures have been put in place to reduce % of people not knowing they have chlamydia?
National screening programme for 15 - 24 yr old to be screened every year
How does Gonorrhoea present?
Purulent discharge, accompanied by inflammation
15% M asymptomatic
50% F asymptomatic
What diagnostic test is used to detect gonnorhoea?
NAAT - nucleic acid amplification test
What areas are swabbed for diagnostic testing of gonorrhea?
M - urine, throat, rectum
F - vaginal, endocervical
What treatment is there for gonorrhea?
Antibiotics but no sex for 7 days after starting them
Tracing of partners
Ceftiaxone, Ciproflaxin, azithromycin
Antimicrobial resistant so need dual therapy
What treatment is there for Chlamydia?
Antibiotics - Doxycylcine, azithromycin
What are the 3 main causes of genital ulceration?
Herpes simplex virus
Non sexually transmitted infection
How many types of genital herpes?
2 types : HSV 1 and HSV 2
What is the incubation period for genital herpes?
2 days - several weeks
How does herpes present?
Flu like symptoms
Vesicles burst to form ulcers which then crust and heal and then asymptomatic shedding occurs once healed
Latent infection in spinal nerve root ganglia
How is herpes diagnosed?
What is the treatment for herpes?
Acyclovir 5 - 10 days
How easy it herpes to transmit?
Transmission without lesions is small but not 0
20 - 60% have the virus
What causes syphilis?
Spriochaete bacterium called Treponema pallidum
Where is syphilis common?
What is the incubation period for syphilis?
How long is the primary infection for syphilis?
9- 90 days
How long is the secondary infection fr syphilis?
6 weeks - 6 months
How does syphilis present?
Painless ulcer - can get it in the back of the throat
What causes genital warts?
Human papilloma virus (>100 types)
Where does genital warts present?
Hands, feet, genitals
What is the incubation period for genital warts?
2 weeks - 8 months
How are genital warts treated?
How often does it reoccur?
Reoccurs in 25% and virus is cleared over time by the immune system
What is the link with HPV and cervical cancer?
1% of those with high risk HPV develop cervical cancer
Which types of HPV are associated with cancer?
HPV 16 and 18
What is the link between inflammation and HIV?
Increased HIV load during inflammatory response
Where is HIV prevalent?
Sub - Saharan Africa - more poverty and less education
Europe (esp Eastern) - intravenous drugs
UK - 25% unaware, MSM highest incidence
How is HIV transmitted?
vaginal, anal, oral, blood, vertical transmission
What cells does the virus infect?
CD4 T-helper cells
Describe the progression of HIV?
Long latent period where virus and CD4 levels are stable
Eventually CD4 reduced and viral load increases
What delays progression to AIDS?
What is PEP?
Post exposure prophylaxis. 1 month HAART if needlestick/splash from high risk patient
What is PEPSE?
post exposure prophylaxis after sexual exposure. 1 month course of HAART
What are high risk fluids for HIV?