Sexually transmitted diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sexually transmitted diseases Deck (44):
1

What diseases present in the throat?

chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis

2

What disease present in the mouth?

herpes, HIV, HPV

3

What does chlamydia infect?

Infects mucosal epithelium

4

What is the incubation period for chlamydia?

1 - 4 weeks

5

What is the % of people who dont show any symptoms for chlamydia?

M >50%
F >70%

6

What happens if chlamydia infects the uterus and fallopian tubes?

Leads to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

7

What is the % of people who get PID following endocervical injection?

17%

8

What does PID cause?

Infertility or ectopic pregnancies

9

What measures have been put in place to reduce % of people not knowing they have chlamydia?

National screening programme for 15 - 24 yr old to be screened every year

10

How does Gonorrhoea present?

Purulent discharge, accompanied by inflammation
15% M asymptomatic
50% F asymptomatic

11

What diagnostic test is used to detect gonnorhoea?

NAAT - nucleic acid amplification test

12

What areas are swabbed for diagnostic testing of gonorrhea?

M - urine, throat, rectum
F - vaginal, endocervical

13

What treatment is there for gonorrhea?

Antibiotics but no sex for 7 days after starting them
Tracing of partners
Ceftiaxone, Ciproflaxin, azithromycin
Antimicrobial resistant so need dual therapy

14

What treatment is there for Chlamydia?

Antibiotics - Doxycylcine, azithromycin

15

What are the 3 main causes of genital ulceration?

Herpes simplex virus
Primary syphilis
Non sexually transmitted infection

16

How many types of genital herpes?

2 types : HSV 1 and HSV 2

17

What is the incubation period for genital herpes?

2 days - several weeks

18

How does herpes present?

Flu like symptoms
Vesicles burst to form ulcers which then crust and heal and then asymptomatic shedding occurs once healed
Dysuria
Latent infection in spinal nerve root ganglia

19

How is herpes diagnosed?

Swabs

20

What is the treatment for herpes?

Acyclovir 5 - 10 days

21

How easy it herpes to transmit?

Transmission without lesions is small but not 0
20 - 60% have the virus

22

What causes syphilis?

Spriochaete bacterium called Treponema pallidum

23

Where is syphilis common?

MSM
Africa
Sex workers

24

What is the incubation period for syphilis?

9-90 days

25

How long is the primary infection for syphilis?

9- 90 days

26

How long is the secondary infection fr syphilis?

6 weeks - 6 months

27

How does syphilis present?

Painless ulcer - can get it in the back of the throat

28

What causes genital warts?

Human papilloma virus (>100 types)

29

Where does genital warts present?

Hands, feet, genitals

30

What is the incubation period for genital warts?

2 weeks - 8 months

31

How are genital warts treated?

Cryotherapy
Topical creams

32

How often does it reoccur?

Reoccurs in 25% and virus is cleared over time by the immune system

33

What is the link with HPV and cervical cancer?

1% of those with high risk HPV develop cervical cancer

34

Which types of HPV are associated with cancer?

HPV 16 and 18

35

What is the link between inflammation and HIV?

Increased HIV load during inflammatory response

36

Where is HIV prevalent?

Sub - Saharan Africa - more poverty and less education
Europe (esp Eastern) - intravenous drugs
UK - 25% unaware, MSM highest incidence

37

How is HIV transmitted?

vaginal, anal, oral, blood, vertical transmission

38

What cells does the virus infect?

CD4 T-helper cells

39

Describe the progression of HIV?

Long latent period where virus and CD4 levels are stable
Eventually CD4 reduced and viral load increases

40

What delays progression to AIDS?

Medication

41

What is PEP?

Post exposure prophylaxis. 1 month HAART if needlestick/splash from high risk patient

42

What is PEPSE?

post exposure prophylaxis after sexual exposure. 1 month course of HAART

43

What are high risk fluids for HIV?

blood
CSF
breast milk
peritoneal fluid
amniotic fluid
saliva

44

What are low risk fluids for HIV?

vomit
faeces
urine