Flashcards in Neuropathy Deck (30)
What is the body weight of the brain?
What is the cardiac output of the brain?
Name 6 areas of the brain?
What is the frontal lobe used for?
What is the parietal lobe used for?
What is the occipital lobe used for?
What is the temporal lobe used for?
What is the cerebellum used for?
Motor skills, balance
What is the brainstem used for?
Body temp, HR, swallowing, breathing
What components make up the brain?
Which glial cells are in the peripheral nervous system?
Which glial cells are in the central nervous system?
Name 8 pathologies that affect the brain?
Degenerative - dementia
What are the causes of hypoxia?
Ischaemia to the brain - cardiogenic shock or MI
Systemic hypoxia - resp failure, lung disease or aneamia
Toxins - carbon monoxide inactivates Hb
What are the causes of infections?
MENINGITIS - acute = vascular congestion, swelling, pus
chronic = less virulent organisms, fibrosis with obstruction of CSF
ENCEPHALITIS - direct infection of brain tissue by virus
TRAUMA TO SKULL
DENTAL INFECTION - cavernous sinus drains blood back to the heart and so spreads any infection
How do we classify cerebral haemmorhages?
Classified by the anatomical compartment into which the bleeding occurs
What is an extradural haemorrhage?
Linked to trauma, often skull fracture, tearing of middle meningeal artery. Bleeding strips dura from inside the skull forming a space occupying lesion
What is a subdural haemorrhage?
Tearing of thin communicating veins between cerebral veins and large venous sinuses. Link to head trauma with closed head injury
What is a subarachnoid haemmorrhage?
Bleeding into subarachnoid space. Rupture of berry aneurysm (80% anterior circle of Willis). Bleeding often extensive as is arterial and there is severe underlying brain injury. 25% die at presentation
What is an intracerebral haemmorhage?
Associated with essential hypertension, older age group. Commonly in the brain substance in basal ganglia. Arises from middle cerebral artery or branches off of it
What is a cerebral infarct?
Death of brain tissue due to compromised blood supply. Most commonly due to a stroke
What is a cerebral tumour?
Tumour in brain tissue. Most commonly neuroepithelial but can be another origin:
Neuroepithelial - astrocytomas, oligodendrocytes, ependymal choroid plexus
Others - haemopoetic, germ cell, meninges
What is an astrocytoma?
Most common glioma in adults and children (20%)
Develops form astrocytes
Slow growing or fast growing
Anaplastic astrocytoma (grade 3 or 4) are most common type of brain tumour in adults. It is malignant so spreads
What is an oligodendroglioma?
5% of all gliomas
Occur in white matter in central cerebrum
What is an ependymoma?
Most common in the spinal cord, develops from ependymal cells which line the spinal cord. Usually slow growing
What is a meningioma?
10% intracranial tumours, associated with venous sinuses and attached to dura, usually benign. They compress adjacent brain tissue
What is dymyelination?
Myelin surrounds the nerve fibres in peripheral nerves, brain and spinal cord. Most important disease of demyelination is multiple sclerosis where focal areas of demyelination occur, resulting in visual disturbance, limb weakness. MS is cyclical with remissions and exacerrbations
What are metablolic pathologies that affect the brain?
They can directly damage the nervous system or cause secondary neurological conditions.
Toxins - alcohol, drugs, lead, mercury, arsenic
Diet - lack of A, B, C vitamins
What is dementia?
Degenerative pathology affecting the brain
Generalised and progressive reduction in higher brain function - loss of intellect, disorientation, memory loss, speech, character disturbance
Causes - alzheimers, huntingtons, multi infarct dementia