Parkinsons Disease Flashcards Preview

Human Disease > Parkinsons Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Parkinsons Disease Deck (19):
1

What is Parkinsons Disease?

Progressive neurological condition

2

What chemical is lacking in Parkinsons?

Dopamine - cells have died

3

What are the 3 main symptoms for Parkinsons?

Tremor
Rigidity
Bradykardia

4

What are other symptoms of Parkinsons?

Tired, pain, depression, constipation

5

How many people are affected by Parkinsons?

1/500 UK, mostly over 50 yrs

6

Is there a cure for Parkinsons?

No

7

What can treatments do for Parkinsons?

Restore level of dopamine in brain by mimicking actions
Brain stimulation
Physical therapy for speech and language

8

What motor symptoms are associated with Parkinsons?

TREMOR - rolling pill movements which spread, seen in resting state
BRADYKINESIS - slow movement or inability to make voluntary and involuntary movements
RIGIDITY - increased muscle tone
POSTURAL INSTABILITY - imbalance, stooped, shuffle
AKINESIA - lacking facial expression, blinking, swallowing

9

What non - motor symptoms are associated with Parkinsons?

AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION -
Varied BP
Cardiac disarrythmias
Excessive sweating
lack of sleep
Dry mouth
Constipation

BEHAVIORAL -
Depression
Dementia
Psychosis
Weight loss
Lack of energy

10

How do we diagnose Parkinsons?

We cant be 100% sure until post mortem confirmation

11

What causes Parkinsons?

Damage/loss of 60% neurones that store and release dopamine in the substantia nigra
Less neurones means less dopamine in striatum of basal ganglia

12

What is dopamine needed for?

Smooth muscle and coordination of body movements

13

What causes the death of the dopamine releasing cells?

Genes
Trauma

14

What are Lewy bodies?

Surviving neurones which are believed to be involved in neuronal damage
They have factors responsible for the development of intraneuronal cytoplasmic fibrillar aggregates of protein alphs - synuclein

15

What reduces the occurance of Parkinsons?

Caffeine
Nicotine
NSAIDS

16

At what point are medications given to Parkinsons sufferer?

When symptoms interfere with level of functioning

17

What medications are given for Parkinsons?

LEVODOPA - crosses BBB and taken up by remaining neurones and is transformed into dopamine. Given alongside drugs that inhibit levodopa being converted to dopamine, leaving more levodopa available, long term not good.
DOPAMINE AGONISTS - bypass nigral neurones and stimulate dopamine receptors directly - Cabergoline but that can lead to IE.
ANTICHOLINERGICS - treat tremors but dont help rigidity
ECSTASY
SURGERY - electrodes to inhibit movement

18

What orofacial symptoms with Parkinsons patients have?

Reduced blink rate
Upward gaze
Lip tongue and eyelid tremors
TMJ pain
cracked teeth
cant retain dentures
reduced smell
drooling
chelitis
Treat with botox to reduce saliva flow

19

How can we make appts better for Parkinsons?

Shorter appts
Morning appts
LA - only 3 cartridges
Chair not flat