Flashcards in Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (28):
Describe the right lung?
3 lobes - U, M, L and steeper bronchi
Describe the left lung?
2 lobes - U, L and flatter bronci
Name 3 parts of the upper respiratory tract?
Name 2 parts of the lower respiratory tract?
Generally, what are upper respiratory tract infections?
Viral and minor
Name 2 upper respiratory tract infections?
What is quinsy?
Peritonsillar abscess - bacterial cause
Unilateral sore throat, painful to swallow
Abscess needs draining
What is acute sinisitis?
Often viral (can be bacterial)
Facial pain, headache, toothache, fever, malaise, nasal drip,
Can be complicated by a brain abscess
Name 3 life threatening upper respiratory tract infections in children? (because airway is already narrower)
Acute epiglottitis - H. influenzae type B - admit to hosp!
Croup - viral. Acute obstructive laryngo tracheo bronchitis
Stridor - wheeze on inhalation
Name 2 major lower respiratory tract infections?
What is bronchitis?
Very common - not a problem unless elderly, immunocompromised or COPD
Treatment only needed if underlying disease - H.influenzae or S. pneumoniae (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, doxycyclin)
What is pneumonia?
WBC in alveoli and fill with organisms and inflammatory exudate, causing lung consolidation
Impaired gas exchange and risk of bacteremia
Rapidly fatal if left untreated
How does pneumonia present?
breathless/ tachypnoea/ pleuritic plain/ systemically unwell (fever, sweating)
What causes pneumonia?
Organism identified from sputum, blood, AB titres, bronchoalveolar lavage
Best clue is where the infection occurs
When should treatment be started?
ASAP - before organism known as dont have time to wait
What are the types of pneumonia?
Hospital acquired (HAP)
Community acquired (CAP)
Asipration pneumonia (AP)
Immunocompromised host (IHP)
What gram stain is CAP?
How do we treat CAP?
combination of amoxycillin and clarithromycin
What organisms cause gram +ve CAP?
S. pneumoniae - peniciilin sensitive
H. influenzae - penicillin sensitive
Legionella sp - erythromycin sensitive
What antibiotics are used in CAP?
PENICILLIN (best for S. pneumoniae
amoxycillin (broader spectrum)
MACROLIDES (best for atypical organisms)
When is pneumonia dangerous?
RR > 30/min
cyanosis / confusion - hypotension
What gram stain is HAP?
What organisms cause gram -ve HAP?
What antibiotics are used in HAP?
Anti - pseudomonas - Beta lactams - ceftazidime
Aminoglycosides - gentamycin
What organisms cause AP?
90% anaerobes and 10% aerobes - bacterial flora of mouth
What are the predisposing conditions for AP?
Impaired consciousness - alcohol, seizures
What antibiotics are used in AP?
Benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin or co-amoxiclav