Respiratory Tract Infections Flashcards Preview

Human Disease > Respiratory Tract Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (28):
1

Describe the right lung?

3 lobes - U, M, L and steeper bronchi

2

Describe the left lung?

2 lobes - U, L and flatter bronci

3

Name 3 parts of the upper respiratory tract?

Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea

4

Name 2 parts of the lower respiratory tract?

Bronchi
Alveoli

5

Generally, what are upper respiratory tract infections?

Viral and minor

6

Name 2 upper respiratory tract infections?

Quinsy
Acute Sinusitis

7

What is quinsy?

Peritonsillar abscess - bacterial cause
Follows tonsillitis
Unilateral sore throat, painful to swallow
Systemic upset
Abscess needs draining

8

What is acute sinisitis?

Often viral (can be bacterial)
Facial pain, headache, toothache, fever, malaise, nasal drip,
Can be complicated by a brain abscess

9

Name 3 life threatening upper respiratory tract infections in children? (because airway is already narrower)

Acute epiglottitis - H. influenzae type B - admit to hosp!
Croup - viral. Acute obstructive laryngo tracheo bronchitis
Stridor - wheeze on inhalation

10

Name 2 major lower respiratory tract infections?

Bronchitis
Pneumonia

11

What is bronchitis?

Very common - not a problem unless elderly, immunocompromised or COPD
Treatment only needed if underlying disease - H.influenzae or S. pneumoniae (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, doxycyclin)

12

What is pneumonia?

WBC in alveoli and fill with organisms and inflammatory exudate, causing lung consolidation
Impaired gas exchange and risk of bacteremia
Rapidly fatal if left untreated

13

How does pneumonia present?

Cough +
breathless/ tachypnoea/ pleuritic plain/ systemically unwell (fever, sweating)

14

What causes pneumonia?

Often bacterial
Organism identified from sputum, blood, AB titres, bronchoalveolar lavage
Best clue is where the infection occurs

15

When should treatment be started?

ASAP - before organism known as dont have time to wait

16

What are the types of pneumonia?

Hospital acquired (HAP)
Community acquired (CAP)
Asipration pneumonia (AP)
Immunocompromised host (IHP)

17

What gram stain is CAP?

gram +ve

18

How do we treat CAP?

combination of amoxycillin and clarithromycin

19

What organisms cause gram +ve CAP?

S. pneumoniae - peniciilin sensitive
H. influenzae - penicillin sensitive
Legionella sp - erythromycin sensitive

20

What antibiotics are used in CAP?

PENICILLIN (best for S. pneumoniae
benzylpenicillin
amoxycillin (broader spectrum)

MACROLIDES (best for atypical organisms)
erythromycin
clarithromycin

21

When is pneumonia dangerous?

RR > 30/min
cyanosis / confusion - hypotension

22

What gram stain is HAP?

Gram -ve

23

What organisms cause gram -ve HAP?

Bacilli
S. aureus
S. pneumoniae

24

What antibiotics are used in HAP?

Anti - pseudomonas - Beta lactams - ceftazidime
Aminoglycosides - gentamycin

25

What organisms cause AP?

90% anaerobes and 10% aerobes - bacterial flora of mouth

26

What are the predisposing conditions for AP?

Impaired consciousness - alcohol, seizures
Dysphagia
Nasogastric tubes
Perio disease

27

What antibiotics are used in AP?

Benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin or co-amoxiclav

28

What should happen after treatment?

fever settles in few days
x rays return to normal 4 - 6 weeks
If not = wrong antibiotic