Cancer of the Upper GI Tract Flashcards Preview

Human Disease > Cancer of the Upper GI Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer of the Upper GI Tract Deck (21):
1

What type of cancer occurs in the Upper GI tract?

Squamous cell carconima ( incidence decreasing)
Caused by nitrosamines, lack of Vit A, C, smoking and alcohol

2

What type of cancer occurs in the Lower GI tract?

Adenocarcinoma (incidence increasing due to obesity and acid reflux, smoking, alcohol)

3

What type of cellular change occurs in Lower GI tract?

Metaplasia

4

What 2 layers are in the GI tract?

Longitudinal
Circular

5

Where is the oesophagus loated?

Posterior mediastinum, 25 cm long

6

What supplies the oesophagus with nerve and blood?

Aortic branches
Vagus innervation

7

What is Barretts oesophagus?

Genetic modification of metaplastic response to gastro oesophageal reflux
Defined as:
more than 3cm of columnar lined oesophagus
Specialised intestinal metaplasia
Risk of malignany 0.5%/year

8

How does Barretts oesophagus become malignant?

Specialised intestinal metaplasia
Low grade dysplasia
High grad dysplasia
Invasive colenocarcinoma

9

Who is oesophageal cancer most common in?

M, over 65 yrs

10

What are the 2 types of oesophageal cancer?

SCC
Adenocarcinoma

11

Who is gastric cancer most common in?

M, over 65yrs, poor SES, high prevalence in the East

12

What cell types line the stomach?

Columnar epithelium

13

What innervated the stomach?

Vagus nerve

14

What are the causes of gastric cancer?

gastritis
anaemia
previous gastric surgery
diet
smoking
family history

15

Name 5 local symptoms of oesophageal and gastric cancer?

Dysphagia
Chest pain
Dyspepsia
Haematemesis
Vomiting

16

Name 5 advanced symptoms of oesohpageal and gastric cancer?

Weight loss
Lymph node
Ascites
Hoarseness
Epigastric mass

17

How do we stage upper GI cancers?

CT scan
Endoscopic ultrasound
Laprascopy
TNM = tumour in wall of organ, malignant lymph nodes, metastatic disease

18

Name 5 oesophageal cancer treatments?

Oesophagectomy - mortalilty 5-10%
Pre op chemo
Tri modality treatment
Primary chemo and radiotherapy

19

Name 4 treatments for dysphagia?

Endoscopic stent placement
Tumour destruction
Palliative chemo
Palliative radiotherapy

20

What are the problems with oesophageal stents?

oesophageal perforation
Stent migration
Tumour overgrowth
blockage
Disintegration

21

How can we treat gastric cancer?

RADICAL :
surgery
gastrectomy
lymphadenopathy

PALLIATIVE:
treat blood loss
remove gastric outlet obstruction
improve dysphagia