Flashcards in Principles of Cancer Management Deck (14)
What are the 5 main methods of cancer management?
What are some signs ans symptoms of malignant disease?
Compression/invasion local structures
What 3 principles are used for investigating malignant disease?
Endoscopy - sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, bronchoscopy
Radiology - CT, MRI, PET, ultrasound
Pathology - needle aspitation cytology, biopsy
What are the 4 types of surgery for cancer management?
Curative surgery for primary disease - influenced by the mode of spread of disease
Curative surgery for secondary malignant disease - local or locoregional
Reconstructive surgery for malignant disease - primarily closure, grafts or skin flaps
Palliative surgery for malignant disease - alleviation of obstructive symptoms and pain relief
What are the 3 applications for radiotherapy?
Primary curative radiotherapy
What are the complication associated with radiotherapy?
Systemic side effects: malaise, nausea, fatigue, anorexia
Effects in irradiated tissues:
SKIN - red, itchy
ABDOMEN - nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, haematuria
HEAD/NECK - dry, pain, dysphagia, hair loss, altered taste
BONE - osteoradionecrosis
CHEST - painful dysphagia
What is palliative radiotherapy?
For local control with minimal side-effects. Prevents impending conditions and provides systematic relief
What are the implications for palliative radiotherapy?
Dyspnoea - shrinkage of obstructing tumour
Emergency - spinal cord compression
What is chemotherapy?
Using drugs to destroy cells based on their increased mitotic and metabolic cells
What are the 2 principles of chemotherapy?
Adjuvant chemotherapy - chemo given after surgery or radiotherapy has been used to control primary disease
Non - adjuvant chemotherapy - chemo given as an initial treatment to improve local control
How can chemo be applied?
What are some side effects of chemo?
Bone marrow suppression
Disrupted GI epithelial turnover
How does hormonal manipulation work as cancer management?
Oestrogen and androgen are necessary to maintain growth of some breast and prostatic cancers. These diseases may be controlled but not cured by removal or addition of hormones.