Principles of Cancer Management Flashcards Preview

Human Disease > Principles of Cancer Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles of Cancer Management Deck (14):
1

What are the 5 main methods of cancer management?

Surgery
Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy
Hormonal Manipulation
Palliative care

2

What are some signs ans symptoms of malignant disease?

Palpable swelling
Obstruction
Haemorrhage
Compression/invasion local structures
Metastatic
Asymptomatic

3

What 3 principles are used for investigating malignant disease?

Endoscopy - sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, bronchoscopy
Radiology - CT, MRI, PET, ultrasound
Pathology - needle aspitation cytology, biopsy

4

What are the 4 types of surgery for cancer management?

Curative surgery for primary disease - influenced by the mode of spread of disease
Curative surgery for secondary malignant disease - local or locoregional
Reconstructive surgery for malignant disease - primarily closure, grafts or skin flaps
Palliative surgery for malignant disease - alleviation of obstructive symptoms and pain relief

5

What are the 3 applications for radiotherapy?

Primary curative radiotherapy
Adjuvant radiotherapy
Palliative radiotherapy

6

What are the complication associated with radiotherapy?

Systemic side effects: malaise, nausea, fatigue, anorexia
Effects in irradiated tissues:
SKIN - red, itchy
ABDOMEN - nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, haematuria
HEAD/NECK - dry, pain, dysphagia, hair loss, altered taste
BONE - osteoradionecrosis
CHEST - painful dysphagia

7

What is palliative radiotherapy?

For local control with minimal side-effects. Prevents impending conditions and provides systematic relief

8

What are the implications for palliative radiotherapy?

Pain control
Dyspnoea - shrinkage of obstructing tumour
Ulcerating lesions
Haemorrhage
Emergency - spinal cord compression

9

What is chemotherapy?

Using drugs to destroy cells based on their increased mitotic and metabolic cells

10

What are the 2 principles of chemotherapy?

Adjuvant chemotherapy - chemo given after surgery or radiotherapy has been used to control primary disease
Non - adjuvant chemotherapy - chemo given as an initial treatment to improve local control

11

How can chemo be applied?

Orally
Intramuscularly
Intravenously
Intrathecally

12

What are some side effects of chemo?

Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Hair loss
Immuno-suppression
Disrupted GI epithelial turnover

13

How does hormonal manipulation work as cancer management?

Oestrogen and androgen are necessary to maintain growth of some breast and prostatic cancers. These diseases may be controlled but not cured by removal or addition of hormones.

14

How does palliative care manage cancer?

Discuss prognosis and life expectancy with pt and relatives
Ensure immediate access in even of sudden deterioration
Identify future nursing requirement
Anticipate development of symptoms
Prevent pain, nausea, vomiting and drug side effects