Flashcards in Dentistry and Mental Illness 1 Deck (20):
Name 3 affective disorders?
Bipolar / mania
What study was done which shows it is not easy to diagnose mental illness?
8 normal people presented at 12 psychiatric hosps "hearing voices"
all 8 were admitted and they behaved normally after that
diagnosed with schizophrenia / manic depression
only the patients in the hospital were suspicious
Who works with mental illness?
psychiatric social workers
What is the incidence of mental illness in the UK?
1/7 suffer from mental disorder (55% female)
3/10 with poor mental health
What are the 5 models of psychiatric disorders?
Historical - witchcraft, demons
Biomedical - physiological / biochemical
Psychological - experiences and associated responses
Extreme forms of normal behaviour
Biopsy chosocial - all of the others
What is the relationship between GDP/GP visits and mental health?
What are the professional barriers to mental health?
Poor diagnostic reliability
Poor cultural variation in interpretation
Lack of insight
Temporal differences - morning or eve
Anxious, irritable - cant concentrate / relax
Adverse reaction to stress
Lack of interest, lethargy, apathy
Decreased apatite , weight loss
Exacerbation of pain
What are the oral manifestations of depression?
Chronic facial pain
Oral ulcers - onset with emotional problems and marked decrease after treatment with tricyclic antidepresants
Describe biploar / mania?
Extreme elation and depression - mood, thought and behaviour, unpredictable, hyperactive, excessive, depressed
ORALLY - xerostaemia
Unpleasant feeling / mood, unease, fearful, inability to concentrate. Acute or chronic, pain attacks, specific focus - eg needles
How does substance abuse affect emotional stability?
Decreased self image, depression, lack of motivation, mechanism for getting analgesics
Describe the effects of alcohol?
Alcohol is most widely used substance
Chronic, progressive and potentially fatal
Increased tolerance of LA and drugs
Nutritional deficiency - problems with absorption and metabolism
Increased bruxism and craniofacial trauma
Describe the effects of cannabis?
Effects in cardiovascular, respiratory, and immune systems
Chronic inflammation of the oral mucosa
Adverse effects on gingivae
Xerostaemia, Caries, Perio and plaque (C. albicans)
Describe the effects of cocaine?
>900,000 users in UK (snort or smoke)
Bruxism, rhinitis, sinusitis
Perforation of the septum and palate
Often mix cocaine with sugar so increased caries
Describe "meth mouth"?
Oral, inhaled, snorted, smoked, injected
Hyper alert, paranoia, anxiety, depressed, mood swings
Decreased motor function and impaired verbal learning
Social, psychological and physical issues
Xerostaemia, caries, bruxism, halotosis, perio
Care when prescribing analgesics!
What is dependence?
Compulsion to use
Physically unpleasant withdrawal - further use for relief
Neglect other interests - substance use is most important
What is addiction?
In addiction to dependence: poor compliance
Substances mask dental pain, dental fear and low pain threshold (tolerance to drugs)
What is the treatment for mental illness?
After illicit drug use - no treatment for >6 hrs because of ischaemia, dysarrhythmia, hypertension, MI