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Flashcards in Asthma and COPD Deck (22):
1

What are asthma and COPD?

Common, chronic conditions
(COPD less on treatment , less common but more deaths/yr)

2

Describe how lung diseases are classified?

AIRWAYS - asthma, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sleep apnoea, cancer
PARENCHYMAL - emphysema, pneumonia, cancer
VASCULAR - pulmonary embolism

3

What is asthma?

Inflammatory, reversible, variable and hyperactive condition

4

What happens during asthma attack?

Smooth muscle contraction - airflow obstruction, SOB and wheeze
Mucous production - more ariflow obstruction, cough and sputum

5

What is asthma associated with?

Allergies
Obesity
Genetic
Hygiene hypothesis - immune system reacts to harmless things eg grass pollen as no bacteria in life

6

What commonly provokes asthma?

viral infections
allergens
exercise
cold air
stress
beta blockers

7

What may provoke asthma dentally?

Latex
fissure sealants
methymethacrylate
stress
NSAIDS

8

What is used to measure lung capacity in asthamatics?

Peak flow meter

9

What is defined as a severe asthma attack?

PFR less than 50%
Unable to complete sentence in one breath
RR over 25/min
pulse over 110/min

10

What is defined as a life threatening asthma attack?

PFR less than 33%
Sa02 less than 92%
silent chest
cyanosis
hypotension
bradykardia
confusion

11

What is the treatment for asthma?

BETA 2 ADRENIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS
Relax bronchial muscle, improve wheeze,breathlessness
Short acting (SABA) - salbutamol (ventolin) , terbutaline
Long acting (LABA) - salmeterol, formoterol, vilanterol
CORTICOSTEROIDS (prevention)
All purpose anti inflammatories
Decrease bronchial inflammation and hyper-responsiveness
Inhaled - beclametasone, budesonide
Oral - prednisalone
OTHERS
Antimuscarinics - ipratropium
Leukotriene antagonists - monteleukast
Theophylline - chromoglucate
Anti- IgE's - omalizumab

12

What is COPD?

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Irreversible airflow obstruction

13

What is used to measure lung volume in COPD?

Spirometry

14

What are the causes of COPD?

smoking
coal mining
air pollution

15

What is COPD associated with?

Smoking
Poverty
Malnutrition
Mental Illness
Poor OH

16

What are the symptoms of COPD?

cough
Mucous
Blood
SOB
Ankle swelling
increased RR
Weight loss
wheeze
Pursed lips to increase pressure to expel breath
Lean forward to support ribs and help breathing

17

What complications are associated with COPD?

Corpulminale - heart failure due to poor lungs
Resp failure - type 1 = hypoxic and low CO2, type 2 = hypoxic and high CO2

18

What is the treatment for COPD?

Stop smoking
Beta agonists (SABA and LABA) - bronchodilator
Anti - muscarinics - bronchodilator
Steroids
02
Theophylline

19

What oral problems occur with asthma and COPD?

xerostaemia, candidiasis, mucosal ulceration, gingivitis, perio

20

What emergency treatment should be given in an acute onset?

Salbutamol 5mg
Steroid - hydrocortisone 100mg IV
Ipratropium - 500mcg nebulised
02 - high flow for asthma, careful with COPD

21

What signs of COPD are classically chronic bronchitis?

mucous
bronchial inflammation
airway narrowing

22

What signs of COPD are classically emphysema?

bullae
breakdown of parenchymal tissue