Flashcards in Asthma and COPD Deck (22)
What are asthma and COPD?
Common, chronic conditions
(COPD less on treatment , less common but more deaths/yr)
Describe how lung diseases are classified?
AIRWAYS - asthma, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sleep apnoea, cancer
PARENCHYMAL - emphysema, pneumonia, cancer
VASCULAR - pulmonary embolism
What is asthma?
Inflammatory, reversible, variable and hyperactive condition
What happens during asthma attack?
Smooth muscle contraction - airflow obstruction, SOB and wheeze
Mucous production - more ariflow obstruction, cough and sputum
What is asthma associated with?
Hygiene hypothesis - immune system reacts to harmless things eg grass pollen as no bacteria in life
What commonly provokes asthma?
What may provoke asthma dentally?
What is used to measure lung capacity in asthamatics?
Peak flow meter
What is defined as a severe asthma attack?
PFR less than 50%
Unable to complete sentence in one breath
RR over 25/min
pulse over 110/min
What is defined as a life threatening asthma attack?
PFR less than 33%
Sa02 less than 92%
What is the treatment for asthma?
BETA 2 ADRENIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS
Relax bronchial muscle, improve wheeze,breathlessness
Short acting (SABA) - salbutamol (ventolin) , terbutaline
Long acting (LABA) - salmeterol, formoterol, vilanterol
All purpose anti inflammatories
Decrease bronchial inflammation and hyper-responsiveness
Inhaled - beclametasone, budesonide
Oral - prednisalone
Antimuscarinics - ipratropium
Leukotriene antagonists - monteleukast
Theophylline - chromoglucate
Anti- IgE's - omalizumab
What is COPD?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Irreversible airflow obstruction
What is used to measure lung volume in COPD?
What are the causes of COPD?
What is COPD associated with?
What are the symptoms of COPD?
Pursed lips to increase pressure to expel breath
Lean forward to support ribs and help breathing
What complications are associated with COPD?
Corpulminale - heart failure due to poor lungs
Resp failure - type 1 = hypoxic and low CO2, type 2 = hypoxic and high CO2
What is the treatment for COPD?
Beta agonists (SABA and LABA) - bronchodilator
Anti - muscarinics - bronchodilator
What oral problems occur with asthma and COPD?
xerostaemia, candidiasis, mucosal ulceration, gingivitis, perio
What emergency treatment should be given in an acute onset?
Steroid - hydrocortisone 100mg IV
Ipratropium - 500mcg nebulised
02 - high flow for asthma, careful with COPD
What signs of COPD are classically chronic bronchitis?