Confusion, delirium and dementia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Confusion, delirium and dementia Deck (22):
1

What is delirium?

Acute onset of confusion and cognitive impairment. Usually reversible
Worse at night, altered consciousness, distractable, disorganised thinking, abnormal sleep wake cycles

2

What is dementia?

Chronic progressive, diffuse impairment of cognition
Progressive impariement of at least 2 of :
memory/language/praxis/abstract thinking/visuospatial abilities/personality/social beahviour
Sever enough to cause functional impairment

3

What are the common causes of confusion?

Lack of hearing aid / glasses
Unfamiliar environment
Drug or alcohol effects
Low blood glucose
Low O2 / high CO2

4

What is mild cognitive impairement?

Mild reduction in cognitive memory
3 outcomes - deteriorates, stable, improves

5

What are the 7 cognitive domains?
People Practise My Language to Say Angry Verbs

memory
language
praxis
abstract thinking
visuospatial awareness
personality
social change

6

What can cause problems with language?

expressive and receptive dysphasia
semantic problems
fluency problems
dyslexia
dysgraphia
dyscalculia
mutism

7

What is expressive dysphasia?

Comprehension preserved but difficulty finding the right words
Non fluent speech
Brocas area affected

8

What is receptive dysphasia?

Speech is fluent but nonsensic - invented words
Comprehension impaired
Wernickes area in superior temporal gyrus affected

9

What is dyspraxia?

Unable to perform complex motor tasks despite intact motor and sensory systems, coordination and comprehension
Usually left frontal or parietal lesions

10

What are visuospatial problems?

Disorientation - poor spatial memory and constructional problems

11

How can personality and social behaviour be affected?

Disinhibition, impulsive behaviours, apathy, poor hygeine, hypersexuality, cant read social situations
Personality is the function of the frontal lobes

12

How is dementia diagnosed?

Asses all cognitive domains
Exclude depression and delirium

13

What are the treatable causes of dementia?

B12 deficiency
Hypothyroidism
Syphilis
HIV
Tumours
Subdural haematoma
Hydrocephalus

14

What are the 4 most common causes of dementia?

Alzheimers Disease 55%
Vascular Dementia 20%
Dementia with Lewy bodies 15%
Rare causes 10%

15

What is Alzheimers Disease?

Gradual onset of memory problems
Recent memory more affected than distant
Anti cholinesterase inhibitors help
F more than M

16

What is Dementia with lewy bodies?

Dementia and Parkinsons features
Visual hallucinations common
Deterioration in step wise fashion
Lewy bodies in cortical neurones

17

What is vascular dementia?

Due to multiple small infarcts
Risk factors: smoking, hypertension, vascular disease
Stepwise deterioration

18

What is fronto - temporal dementia?

Selective atrophy of frontal and temporal lobes
Presents with loss of knowledge or speech output and behavioural changes - personality, emotional, lack insight

19

What do Huntingtons, CJD, HIV, syphilis, MS have in common?

Rare causes of dementia

20

How does alcohol cause brain injury?

Acute intoxication causes confusion
Chronic abuse - brain atrophy
Wernickes Korsakoff syndrome - acute brain damage due to thiamine deficiency. IRREVERSIBLE

21

What are the modifyable risk factors for dementia?

BP
Smoking
Cholesterol
Alcohol

22

How do patients with delirium present?

Agitated or apathetic
(agitated easier to spot)