Test 1 chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1 chapter 7 Deck (55)
1

very motile first to arrive to site of infection and begin phagocytosis
Contain granulocytes

neutrophils

2

initiate vasodilation and capillary permeability

neutrophils

3

increased when there is a bacterial infection

neutrophils

4

neutrophils are more in common in what type of inflammation

acute inflammation

5

increase indicated parasitic worm infection
Has minor phagocytosis

eosinophils

6

mast cells release what to attract eosinophils to site of inflammation

ECF-A

7

eosinophils release what to help end inflammatory response

histaminase
Also causes damage to cell

8

histamine initiates what

inflammation

9

cells that circulate in the blood for a few days

monocytes

10

when monocytes leave the blood and enter the tissue they change into cells called

macrophages

11

BIG eaters
do not die after eating something

Macrophages

12

produce cytokines( suppress further inflammation and initiate healing) and activate adaptive immune system

macrophages

13

macrophages are most common in what type of inflammation

chronic

14

3 goals of cells when cell injury occurs

confine damage
kill microorganisms
remove debris

15

cardinal signs of local inflammation

redness, heat (vasodilation)
swelling (increased vascular permeability)
pain (kinin)

16

cardinal signs of systemic inflammation

fever
leukocytosis
plasma protein synthesis

17

increased number of white cells in the blood

leukocytosis

18

site of acute inflammation

vascular

19

site of chronic inflammation

connective tissue

20

cells involved in acute inflammation

neutrophils
platelets
mast cells

21

cell involved in chronic inflammation

monocytes
macrophages
lymphocytes

22

proteins activated by tissue damage/infection
Essential to effective inflammatory response

the plasma protein systems

23

what are the three plasma protein systems

complement system
clotting system
kinin system

24

what is the function of the complement system

anaphylatoxis
leukocyte chemotaxis
opsonization
cell lysis

25

induces rapid mast cell degranulation and the release of histamine, causing vasodilation and increased capillary permeability

anaphylatoxis

26

are molecules that "tag" microorganisms for destruction by cells of the inflammatory system (primarily neutrophils and macrophages)

opsonins

27

is a group of plasma proteins that form a fibrinous meshwork at an injured or inflamed site

clotting system

28

the main substance in the fibrinous mesh is an insoluble protein called ____ that is the end product of the coagulation cascade

fibrin

29

the tissue factor pathway is activated by tissue factor TF that is released by damaged endothelial cells in blood vessels and reacts with activated factor VII

extrinsic pathway

30

pathway activated when the vessel wall is damaged

intrinsic pathway

31

extrinsic and intrinsic pathways converge at

factor x

32

common pathway to fibrin clot

factor x

33

activates inflammatory cells

kinin

34

the primary kinin produced from the kinin system is

bradykinin

35

what does bradykinin do

causes vasodilation
acts with prostaglandins to stimulate nerve endings
increases vascular permeability
leukocyte chemotaxis

36

many cells secret soluble factors that contribute to the regulation of innate or adaptive resistance by affecting other neighboring cells

cytokines

37

cytokines are either ____ or _____

pro-inflammatory
anti-inflammatory

38

systemic induction of fever by some cytokines that are produced at an inflammatory site

endogenous pyrogens

39

same molecule had different biological activity dependent on binding target cell

pleiotropic

40

produced primarily by macrophages and lymphocytes in response to pathogen or stimulation by other products of inflammation

interleukins

41

cytokine produced mainly by macrophages that have been stimulated by substances associated with infection

IL-1

42

a cytokine that is an endogenous pyrogen that reacts with receptors on cells of the hypothalamus and affects the bodes thermostat

IL-1

43

cytokine that is primarily produced by lymphocytes and suppresses the growth of lymphocytes and the production of pro inflammatory cytokines by macrophages, leading to the down-regulation of both inflammation and the adaptive immune response

IL-10

44

protect against viral infections and modulate the inflammatory response
Species specific

interferons

45

produced and released by infected host cells and induce synthesis of antiviral protein in uninfected cell that blocks viral replication

interferon

46

interferons produced by macrophages

IFN alpha
IFN beta

47

induce production of antiviral proteins and interfere with viral transcriptase or replication

IFN alpha
IFN beta

48

interferons released by t lymphocytes

IFN gamma

49

enhances the microbiocidal activity of macrophages

IFN gamma

50

secreted by macrophages and mast cells
has proinflammatory effects
Causes muscle wasting and intravascular thrombosis as a consequence of prolonged production

TNF alpha

51

what does histamine do

increase blood flow to microcirculation by temporary, rapid constriction of large blood vessels and dilation of postcapillary venues
Increases vascular permeability by retraction of endothelial cells lining capillaries

52

histamine receptor that is pro-inflammatory

H1

53

histamine receptor that os anti-inflammatory

H2

54

histamine receptor that is present on smooth muscles cells especially those of the bronchi and causes bronchoconstriction

H1 receptor

55

histamine receptor found on gastric mucosa parietal cells and induces secretion of gastric acid which reduces chemotaxis of cells

H2 receptor