Test 2 cancer ch 12-13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 cancer ch 12-13 Deck (74)
1

Grow slowly
Well defined capsule
not invasive
well differentiated
low mitotic index
do not metastasize

Benign

2

Grow rapidly
No capsule
invasive
poorly differentiated
high mitotic index
metastasis

Malignant

3

named accordion got the tissues from which they arise and include the suffix -oma

benign

4

lipoma

fat tissue

5

giloma

brain and spine tissue

6

leiomyoma

uterine tissue

7

chondroma

cartilage tissue

8

named according to the tissue from which they arise

malignant

9

malignant epithelial tumors are referred to as

carcinomas

10

malignant connective tissue tumors are referred to as

sarcomas

11

cancers of lymphatic tissue are

lymphomas

12

cancers of blood forming cells are

leukemias

13

pre-invasive epithelial malignant tumors of glandular or epithelial origin that have not broken through the basement membrane or invade the surrounding stroma

carcinoma in situ

14

can stack on top of each other

anchorage independent

15

do not respond to suppressing genes

autonomy

16

ability to differentiate into multiple different cell types

multipotent

17

loss of cellular differentiation

anaplasia

18

are substances produced by cancer cells or that are found on plasma cell membranes, in the blood, or CFS, or urine

tumor markers

19

examples of tumor markers

homones
enzymes
genes
antigens
antibodies

20

secrete a protein known as alpha fetoprotein (AFP) into the blood

liver an germ cell tumors

21

secrete prostate-specific antigen (PSA) into the blood

prostate tumors

22

if a tumor marker itself has biologic activity, then it can cause symptoms

paraneoplastic syndrome

23

due to a mutation, a cell acquires characteristics that allow it to have selective advantages over its neighbors

clonal proliferation or expansion

24

mutation where cancer cells can secrete their own growth factors

autocrine stimulation

25

ras stimulates what

cell growth

26

protein kinase

drives the cell cycle

27

causes cell to undergo apoptosis

p53 gene

28

growth on new vessels

angiogenesis

29

advanced centers can secrete angiogenic factors such as

vascular endothelial growth factor

30

are protective caps on each chromosome, held in place by telomerase, and are important for cellular replication signaling

telomeres

31

helps preserve the telomer

temomerase

32

mutant genes that in their non mutant stat direct protein synthesis and cellular growth

ongogenes

33

encode proteins that in their normal state negatively regulate proliferation

tumor-supressor genes

34

a normal non mutant gene that codes for cellular growth

proto oncogene

35

changes in one or a few nucleotide base pairs
Ex. mutation in epithelial growth factor

point mutation

36

a piece on one chromosome is transferred to another

chromosome translocation

37

duplication of a small piece of chromosome over and over
Resulting in an increased expression of an oncogene

gene amplification

38

Whole regions of chromosomes are shut off while the same region in other cells remain active

gene silencing

39

promote tumor survival

tumor associated macrophages

40

which HPVs cause cervical cancer

16 and 18

41

which HPVs cause genital warts

6 and 11

42

degree to which development is contingent on its environment

developmental plasticity

43

direct invasion of contiguous organs

local spread

44

phases of tumor spread

transformation
growth
local invasion
distant metastasis

45

inside blood stream

intravasation

46

outside blood stream

extravasation

47

spread of cancer from a primary site of origin to a distant site

metastasis

48

preferential growth of cancerous cells in certain organs

organ tropism

49

causes headaches
seizures
vertigo

brain cancer metastasis

50

causes cough
hemoptysis
dyspnea

respiratory cancer metastasis

51

causes lymphadenopathy

lymph node cancer metastasis

52

causes hepatomegaly
jaundice

liver cancer metastasis

53

causes pain
fractures
spinal cord compression

skeletal cancer metastasis

54

stage where cancer is confined to its organ of origin

stage 1

55

stage where cancer is locally invasive

stage 2

56

stage where cancer is in regional structures

stage 3

57

stage in which cancer is found in distant sites

stage 4

58

What does T stand for

primary tumor

59

what does N stand for

regional lymph nodes

60

what does M stand for

metastasis

61

a rapid increase in the number of immature white cells

acute lymphoblastic leukemia

62

a rapid increase and the number if abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow that interfere with the production of normal blood cells

acute myeloid leukemia

63

excessive build up of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

64

the increase and under regulation growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone macros and the accumulation of the cells in the blood
Philadelphia chromosome

chronic myeloid leukemia

65

what age does AML occur in

both children and adults

66

what age does ALL occur in

most common in children but also effects adults

67

what age does CML occur in

mainly affects adults

68

what age does CLL occur in

most often in people over 55

69

symptom complexes that cannot be explained by the local or distant spread of the tumor or by the effects of hormones released by the tissue from which the tumor arose

paraneoplastic syndrome

70

chemotherapy that shrinks/eradicated tumor

induction

71

chemotherapy that climate micrometastsis after surgery

adjuvant

72

chemotherapy that shrinks tumor before surgery or radiation to spare more normal tissue

neoadjuvant

73

is used to kill cancer cells while minimizing the damage to normal structures

radiation therapy

74

side effects of cancer treatment

GI tract
bone marrow
hair and skin
reproductive tract