Test 3 Neuro part 2 Flashcards Preview

Patho > Test 3 Neuro part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 Neuro part 2 Deck (44)
1

decreased muscle tone
Passive movement without resistance
Nerve impulses lost
Flaccidity

Hypotonia

2

increased muscle tone
increased resistance to passive movement
Spasticity

hypertonia

3

What parts are involved with the lower motor neuron

Bulbar
Anterior horn cell
primary muscle
myoneural junction

4

what parts are involved with the upper motor neuron

Motor cortex
Internal capsule
Brainstem
spinal cord

5

what neurotransmitters are inhibitory

Dopamine and GABA

6

what neurotransmitters are excitatory

Acetylcholine

7

which motor neuron effects muscle groups, has minimal muscle atrophy, no fasciculations, increased DTR, hypertonia and spasticity, and has a babinski sign

Upper motor neuron (pyramidal)

8

which motor neuron effect individual muscles, has marked muscle atrophy, has fasciculations, decreased DTR, hypotonia and flaccidity, and does not have a babinski sign

lower motor neuron (antiriot horn and cranial nerve nuclei)

9

neurodegenerative disorderthat diffuselt affects upper and lower motor neuron of cerebral cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord
Selectively affects motor function
Progressive weakness leading to reparatory failure and death

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS

10

starts in the parental gyris
causes movement

pyramidal motor pathway

11

starts in the basil ganglia and modifies movement

extrapyramidal motor pathway

12

synthesizes and releases dopamine

substantia nigra

13

signal the corpus striatum to inhibit motor movement to make sure movement is controlled and smooth

dopamine

14

Voluntary movement paralysis, increased DTRs, babinski sign present, no involuntary movement, spastic muscle tone

pyramidal motor syndromes

15

little to no paralysis of voluntary movement, DTR slightly increased or WNL, absent babinski sign, tremor, chorea, athertosis, or dystonia, plastic or intermittent (cogwheel) rigidity

extrapyramidal syndromes

16

involuntary movements

dyskinesia

17

severe degernation/atrophy of basal ganglia (corpus striatum) involving dopaminergic pathwyas leading to impaired direct (movement facilitation) and indirect (movement inhibition) motor pathways
Defect of post synaptic receptors

Parkinsons Disease

18

movement that is slow, sinuous, distal extremities

athetosis

19

flapping hands

asterixis

20

reapid irregular contraction of muscle groups

chorea

21

movement of face trunk and extremities

tardive

22

traumatic injury of vertebral and neural tissues dut to compressing, pulling, or shearing forces
Loss of motor, sensory, reflex, and autonomic function below transected/ischemic area

spinal cord trauma

23

Complete loss of reflex function at and below injury level; suprasegmental impulses inhibited
Paralysis, flaccidity, no sensation, no bladder or rectal control, hypothermia, hypotension
Over when reflexes return and spastic paralysis replaces flaccidity

spinal shock

24

Loss of sympathetic outflow
Cervical/ upper thoracic injury
Unopposed parasympathetic (intact vagus nerve)
Vasodilation, hypotension, bradycardia, hypothermia

neurogenic shock

25

T1-L2 innervation

sympathetic nervous system

26

cranial nerve and sacral innervation

parasympathetic nervous system

27

sudden, massive, uncompensated CV response to SNS stimulation of sensory receptors below level of cord lesion

Autonomic hyperreflexia

28

plasma membrane disrupted, edema compresses capilares
Contralateral paresis, paralysis, dysphasia, dysphagia, agnosia

cerebrovascular accidents CVA

29

types of ischemic stroke

thrombotic
embolic

30

Arterial occlusions caused by thrombi formed in arteries supplying brain or in intracranial vessels
transient ischemic attacks

Thrombotic stroke

31

fragments that break from throbs formed outside brain

embolic

32

location of CVA when there is bruit, retinal emboli, TIA history

Internal carotid

33

location of CVA when there is contralateral hemiparesis/plegia (UE>LE), contralateral sensory loss, aphasia/dysphasia, dysarthia, contralateral homonymous hemanopsia, hyperhidrosis, Cheyne-Stokes breathing

middle cerebral

34

location of CVA when there is contralateral hemiparesis/plegia/proprioception, tongue weakness/dysarthia

vertebral

35

location of CVA when there is contralateral hemiparesis (LE>UE), contralateral LE sensory loss, apraxia

anterior cerebral

36

location of CVA when there is contralateral hemiplegia and sensory loss, dyskinesia, ataxia, tremor, agnosia, bilateral: coma, visual loss, absent doll eyes and decrease LOC

posterior cerebral

37

Blood escapes from defective/injured vasculature into subarachnoid space and causes an inflammatory response
Decreased LOC, positive Kernig and Brudzinski sign, photophobia, nuchal rigidity, papilledema

subarachnoid hemorrhage

38

inflammation and swelling of the optic nerve

papilledema

39

Progressive, inflammatory, demyelinating CNS disorder
Involves sensory and motor neurons

multiple sclerosis

40

Acquired inflammatory disease causing demyelination of peripheral nerves with relative sparing of axons
Autoimmune disease preceded by viral or bacterial infection

Guillain-Barree syndrome

41

Chronic autoimmune disease
IgG antibodies produced against acetylcholine receptors that act at neuromuscular junction
Defect in nerve impulse transmission

Myasthenia Gravis

42

prolonged, uncontrollable sadness

Depression

43

Decreased neurotransmitter activity in major depression is caused by

Decreased receptro sensitivity
Increased neurotransmitter release
Increased neurotransmitter reuptake
increased neurotransmitter metabolism by MAO

44

Excessive and persistent worries
Abnormalities in the norepinephrine and serotonin systems

GAD