Test 1 chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1 chapter 2 Deck (35)
1

part of the life cycle

physiological

2

injury or illness

pathological

3

Are reversible changes in the cell

cellular adaptations

4

is a decrease or shrinkage in cellular size

atrophy

5

occurs with early develpoment
Ex. the thymus undergoes atrophy during childhood

physiological atrophy

6

occurs as a result of decrease in workload, use, pressure, blood supply, nutrition, hormonal stimulation, and nervous stimulation

pathological atrophy

7

is an increase in the size of cells and consequently in the size of the affected organ

hypertrophy

8

is an increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased rate of cellular division
In response to injury it occurs when the injury has been sever and prolonged

hyperplasia

9

refers to abnormal changes in the size, shape, and organization of mature cells
Closest to neoplasia

Dysplasia

10

is the reversible replacement of one mature cell by another, sometimes less differentiated, cell type

metaplasia

11

lack of sufficient oxygen

hypoxia

12

an inadequate supply of blood to an organ or part of the body

ischemia

13

is an electorally uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron

free radical

14

Two things that cause direct toxicity to a cell membrane chemically

free radicals
lipid peroxidation

15

when free radicals steal electrons from in lipids in the cell membrane causing cell damage

lipid peroxidation

16

causes of chemical cell injury

air pollutants
insecticides
social drugs
acetaminophen
dry cleaning

17

a decreased volume of circulating blood in the body

hypovolemia

18

rapid loss of the plasma membrane structure, organelle swelling, and mitochondrial dysfunction

necrosis

19

a regulated or programmed cell process

apoptosis

20

necrosis that occurs primarily in the kidneys, heart, and adrenal glands

dry: coagulative

21

necrosis caused by protein denaturation or irruption of aerial blood flow

dry: coagulative

22

necrosis that occurs in internal organs including the brain

wet: liquefactive

23

necrosis that involves hydrolase

wet: liquefactive

24

necrosis that can be caused by problems in venous blood flow

wet: liquefactive

25

necrosis caused by TB pulmonary infection

caseous

26

necrosis that is a combination of coagulative and liquefactive

caseous

27

necrosis in which the tissue appears soft and granular

caseous

28

necrosis that occurs in the breast, pancreas, and abdominal structures

fat

29

necrosis caused by cellular dissolution caused by lipase

fat

30

necrosis that appears opaque and chalk white

fat

31

necrosis caused by bacteria that produces enzymes that destroy connective tissue and cause bubble in muscle cells

gan gangrenous

32

decrease in body temperature after death

algor mortis

33

blood gravity dependent purplish discoloration after death

livor mortis

34

muscle stiffening after death

rigor mortis

35

putrefaction, flaccidity, greenish discoloration, bloating

postmortem autolysis