Test 4 Digestive Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 4 Digestive Deck (65)
1

what controls the saliva

sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers

2

is an anticholenergic agent that inhibits salvation

atropine

3

increases salivary secretion

beta adrenergic stimulation

4

what does the stomach absorb

water
alcohol

5

what does the Duodenum absorb

Iron
Calcium
Fats
Sugars
Water
Proteins
Vitamines
Magnesium
Sodium

6

what does the jejunum absorb

sugar
proteins

7

what does the ileum absorb

bile salts
vitamine b12
chloride

8

what does the colon absorb

water
electrolytes

9

what do intestinal bacteria metabolize

bile salts
estrogens
lipids

10

where are anaerobic bacteria found

distal ileocecal valve

11

where are aerobes found

low concentrations in the jejunum

12

symptoms of vomiting

Hypersalivation
Tachycardia

13

nonproductive vomiting

retching

14

is spontaneous vomiting that does not follow nauseas or retching
Brainstem problems

Projectile vomiting

15

increased frequency of bowl movements more than 3 a day
Increased volume, fluidity, weight of feces

Diarrhea

16

a nonabsorable substances in the intestine draws water into the lumen by osmosis

osmotic diarrhea

17

is a form of large-volume diarrhea caused by excessive mucosal secretion of chloride or bicarbonate rich fluid or inhibition of net sodium absorption

secretory diarrhea

18

excess motility decrease transit time, mucosal surface contact, and opportunities fro fluid absorption resulting in diarrhea

motility diarrhea

19

complications of diarrhea

metabolic acidosis
hypokalemia

20

vomiting blood

hematemesis

21

hematochezia

bright red blood per rectum

22

dark and tarry stool

melena

23

coffee ground hematemesis occurs in

upper intestinal bleeds

24

bright red hematemesis occurs in

acute bleeding

25

hematichezia occurs in

lower gastrointestinal bleeds

26

melena occurs in

upper intestinal bleeds

27

difficulty swallowing

dysphagia

28

denervation of smooth muscle in the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

achalasia

29

is the reflux of chyme from the stomach to the esophagus

GERD

30

if GERD causes inflammation of the esophagus it is called

reflux esophagitis

31

is the blocking or narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
Can be aired or congenital
Causes metabolic acidosis

Pyloric obstruction

32

is any condition that prevents the flow of chyme through the intestinal lumen or failure of normal intestinal utility in the absence of an obstructing lesion

intestinal obstruction

33

is a motility problem of the intestines

ileus

34

occlusion
Usually secondary to adhesion

simple obstruction

35

paralytic from sedation or anesthesia

functional obstruction

36

is an acute form of a peptic ulcer that is related to severe illness, stress, or systemic trauma

stress ulcer

37

ulcers seen when there is hemorrhage, severe burns, or heart failure

ischemic ulcer

38

ulcers that develop as a result of brain injury and hyper secretion of acid

cushing ulcers

39

is the rapid emptying of chyme from a surgically created, residual stomach into the small intestine 10-20 min after eating

dumping syndrome

40

Chronic inflammatory disease that causes ulceration of the colonic mucosa
Sigmoid colon and rectum

Ulcerative colitis

41

idiopathic inflammatory disorder, affects any part of the digestive tract, from mouth to anus

crohns disease

42

herniations of mucosa through the muscle layers of the colon wall, especially the sigmoid colon

diverticula

43

asymptomatic diverticular disease

diverticulosis

44

the inflammatory stage of diverticulosis

diverticulitis

45

is the cellular basis for obesity
Secretes hormones and adipokines

adipocyte

46

causes dysfunction of adipocytes

visceral fat

47

stimulate eating

orexins

48

inhibit eating

anorexins

49

stimulate appetite

ghrelin (stomach)

50

suppresses appetite

leptin (adipose tissue)

51

anti inflammatory

adiponectin (adipose tissue)

52

Is abnormally high blood pressure in the portal venous sytem dut to resistance to portal blood flow

portal hypertension

53

Clinical manifestations of portal hypertension

Varices
splenomegaly
ascites
hepatic encephalopathy

54

systemic viral disease that primarily affects the liver

hepatits

55

formally known as infectious hepatitis

hepatits A

56

Transmitted through contact with infected blood, body fluids, or contaminated needles
Maternal transmission can occur if the mother is infected during the third trimester

hepatits B

57

is responsible for most cases of post-transfusion hepatitis
Also implicated in infections related to IV drug use

hepatits C

58

Depends on hepatitis B for replication

hepatits D

59

fecal to oral transmission
Developing countries

hepatitis E

60

Hepatitis that was recently discovered
Parentally and sexually transmitted

hepatitis G

61

Irreversible inflammatory disease that disrupts liver function and even structure

cirrhosis

62

the oxidation of alcohol damages hepatocytes

alcoholic cirrhosis

63

Cirrhosis begins in the bile canaliculi and ducts

biliary cirrhosis

64

consequences of chronic disease

postnecrotic cirrhosis

65

gallstone formation

cholelithiasis